bacteria that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

  • 9 min read
  • Feb 11, 2020

Rodents and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome | Massey Services, Inc.
Rodents and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome | Massey Services, Inc.

NORD like to thank Pierre E. Rollin, MD, Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to help in the preparation of this report.

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a contagious disease caused by hantaviruses (Sin Nombre hantavirus in most of the US). Transmission occurs when the (air) direct or indirect contact is made with saliva or waste products from rodents that carry the virus, the most common deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). The early symptoms may include fever, muscle pain (myalgia), headache, cough and / or difficulty breathing. Symptoms progress rapidly, and abnormally low blood pressure (hypotension), shock, and / or respiratory failure may occur.

The initial symptoms of the most common HPS include fever, muscle pain (myalgia), headache, and / or cough. Chills, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and / or an overall sense of discomfort (malaise) may be present. Other Symptoms typically include shortness of breath, rapid breathing (tachypnea), rapid heart rate (tachycardia), dizziness, and sometimes joint pain (arthralgia), back and / or chest pain, and / or sweating.

Shortly after the initial symptoms of HPS appear excess fluid can accumulate in the lungs (pulmonary edema), started in the air spaces of the lungs (interstitial edema). Fluid can then fill the bag in lung tissue (alveolar edema) of both lungs (bilateral) and causes difficulty in breathing and abnormally low levels of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia). Accumulation of tissue and cells are not normally found in the lungs (infiltrates) may also occur. the disease progresses rapidly and can cause abnormally low blood pressure (hypotension), shock, and / or respiratory problems.

HPS in the US are mostly caused by the Sin Nombre hantavirus, a new virus is identified in the family Bunyaviridae. The virus is carried by deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Mouse deer can be found in most of the United States, except the southeast. Not all deer mice infected with the Sin Nombre hantavirus, and those who do not carry the virus does not seem to be affected by diseases related

Three other species of hantavirus that cause disease in humans in the United States. New York virus identified in the white-footed mice (eastern US), Black Creek Canal virus on cotton rat in Florida, and at the Rice Rat Bayou virus in Texas and Louisiana. In addition, many other hantaviruses have been found in other rodent species in some countries, but has never been detected in humans. In South America, many hantaviruses have been found responsible of human disease. Andes virus is the cause of HPS is particularly serious in Argentina and Chile.

Sin Nombre hantavirus is transmitted to humans when they come in direct or indirect contact (air) with waste products or saliva from an infected rodent. Respiratory transmission, believed to be the most frequent mode of transmission of Sin Nombre hantavirus, occurs when people inhale airborne particles of dust or dry particles that carry saliva or waste products from infected rodents. infectious virus particles can also penetrate the mucosa.

HPS appears to affect men and women in the same amount. Approximately half of the cases reported in the medical literature has affected Native Americans, and most of the reported cases remains unaffected Caucasians. HPS affected populations appear to be related to the geographic location and exposure to rodent droppings as opposed to ethnic backgrounds. Because many of the documented cases have occurred in the southwestern United States, a high percentage of individuals initially affected were Native Americans. As the virus is found in other parts of the United States, many other people from varied ethnic backgrounds have been affected throughout the United States.

Symptoms of the following disorders can be similar to Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Comparisons may be useful for differential diagnosis:

There are many types of pneumonia can be caused by bacteria or viruses. In general, symptoms of pneumonia are similar to Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Only laboratory tests can determine which diseases affect individuals.

interstitial pneumonia, involving space and network (gap) of the lungs, is a type of primary pneumonia. It involves an abnormal increase in the interstitial tissue and reduction and hardening (induration) of t other lungissue. The main symptoms may include exertional breathlessness, cough (which may or may not be present), and loss of appetite. Symptoms of interstitial pneumonia can vary from mild to severe according to the degree of involvement of the lung, accumulation of tissue and cells are not normally found in the lungs (infiltrate), the rate of progress, and complications (such as lung infections other). Patients often febrile (fever). However, sometimes it may be quick onset, fever, showed acute respiratory infections. (For more information on this disorder, choose “interstitial pneumonia” as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)

pneumonia eosinophilic characterized by inflammation of the lungs and abnormal increase in the number of certain white blood cells (eosinophils ) in the lymph nodes, lungs, and blood. This disorder is usually associated with allergic conditions and various parasitic infections. eosinophilic pneumonia usually has a sudden onset. There may be accompanying weight loss and increases the pulse rate. Symptoms may also include mild fever, coughing with the possibility of blood in the sputum, wheezing and labored breathing. There may also be chills, sweating, chest pain, and / or a general feeling of ill health. Eosinophilic pneumonia symptoms may be mild or severe, depending on the number of areas affected lung. (For more information on this disorder, choose “Eosinophilic Pneumonia” as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)

It is important to avoid areas where deer mice leaving their droppings, such as storage sheds , basements, and piles of wood. When exposed to dirt rat, an individual must wear a face mask that covers both the nose and mouth, as well as rubber gloves. area should be cleaned with disinfectant to prevent aerosolization of dust potentially infected. People who show flu-like symptoms after exposure to mice droppings had to be taken to hospital immediately, because this disorder progress over a matter of hours, and every hour is critical.

The diagnosis of HPS depends on several factors, including symptoms of affected individuals, history of contact with rodents (especially deer mice) or exposure to areas where rodents could live, the absence of an alternative diagnosis, and / or laboratory tests that show changes in characteristics. Because the symptoms of HPS are rapidly progressive, aggressive treatment immediately indicated if HPS is suspected.

blood test laboratory Characteristics for people with HPS may show normal enlarged white blood cells (atypical lymphocytes), a platelet count that is lower than normal (thrombocytopenia) or dropping, and / or higher than the number of normal white blood cells. oxygen levels in the blood and / or tissues may be very low (hypoxemia).

The diagnosis of HPS was confirmed when laboratory tests reveal the presence and / or increased levels of a certain protein (Hantavirus IgM and / or IgG titer rise) in blood samples from affected individuals. Reaction process called polymerase chain (PCR) can be used to detect and identify hantavirus strain has caused the infection.

HPS Treatment involves intensive care, including monitoring of fluid balance, electrolyte balance, and blood pressure. Abnormally low levels of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia) may require administration of oxygen. Shock and low blood pressure (hypotension) associated with HPS can be treated with medication (eg, dopamine and norepinephrine) to improve blood flow and thereby increase blood and oxygen delivery to organs. In patients with severe, Extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy can be offered in specialized centers and may be the only chance to survive.

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INTERNET

hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Mayo Clinic. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hantavirus-pulmonary-syndrome/DS00900. Updated January 2, 2014. Accessed June 20, 2016.

Cunha BA. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/236425-overview. Updated October 27, 2015. Accessed June 20, 2016.

United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS). Last Update February 6, 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/hps/. Accessed June 20, 2016.

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