cdc hantavirus history

  • 8 min read
  • Feb 23, 2020

Hantavirus Disease, by State of Reporting | Hantavirus | DHCPP | CDC
Hantavirus Disease, by State of Reporting | Hantavirus | DHCPP | CDC

In May 1993, an outbreak of lung disease described occurred in the southwestern United States, in an area shared by Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Utah known as “The Four Corners”. A young, physically fit Navajo men suffer from shortness of breath was rushed to a hospital in New Mexico and died very quickly.

While reviewing the outcome of those cases, medical personnel found that the young man’s fiancée had died a few days before after showing symptoms of the same piece of information that proved key to finding the disease. As Dr. James Cheek Indian Health Service (IHS) noted, “I think if it were not for that initial couple of people who become ill within a week of each other, we will never find the disease at all”.

an investigation combing the entire Four Corners region launched by the New Mexico Office of the Medical investigation (OMI) to find other people who have a history of similar cases. Within a few hours, Dr. Bruce Tempest of IHS, working with OMI, was situated five, young people healthy who have all died after acute respiratory failure.

A series of laboratory tests have failed to identify any deaths caused by the disease known as bubonic plague. At this point, the CDC Special Pathogens Branch told. CDC, the health department of the state of New Mexico, Colorado and Utah, the Indian Health Service, the Navajo Nation, and the University of New Mexico all join together to confront the plague.

Over the next few weeks, as additional cases of the disease were reported in the Four Corners area, doctors and other scientific experts working intensively to narrow down the list of possible causes. Special mix of symptoms and clinical findings of researchers pointed away from possible causes, such as exposure to herbicides or new types of influenza, and against several types of viruses. Tissue samples from patients who had the disease were sent to the CDC for complete analysis. Virologist at CDC used several tests, including a new method to pinpoint the viral genes at the molecular level, and is able to connect with the virus pulmonary syndrome, in a previously unknown type of hantavirus particular.

The researchers knew that all the other known hantaviruses transmitted to people by rodents, such as mice and rats. Therefore, an important part of their mission is to trap a lot of different species of rodents living in the Four Corners area as possible to find a particular type of rodent that carried the virus. From June to mid-August 1993, all species of rodents were trapped inside and outside the houses where people have to live hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, as well as in the garden pinon and sheep summer camp where they work. Additional mice trapped for comparison in and around the nearby households as well. Taking a calculated risk, researchers decided to not wearing protective clothing or masks during the process of trap. “We do not want to go in wearing a respirator, scare … everyone”, John Sarisky, said an Indian Health Service specialist environmental disease. However, when nearly 1,700 mice trapped dissected to prepare samples for analysis in the CDC, protective clothing and respirators are used.

Among the trapped rodents, deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was found to be the main host for previously unknown species of hantavirus. Since the mouse deer often live near people in rural and semi-rural areas-in barns and outbuildings, a pile of wood, and in-home community researchers suspect that the deer mice may transmit the virus to humans. About 30% of deer mice tested showed evidence of hantavirus infection. Tests also showed that several other species of rodents infected, although in a lesser amount.

The next step is to set out the relationship between an infected deer mice and households where people already live disease. Therefore, investigators launched an investigation into the case-control. They compared the “case” households, where people already live disease, with about “control” households. similar control households to which the case-patient’s life, except for one factor: no one in the household had disease control

Results.? First, the researchers caught more rodents in the case of households than in households control, so more rodents might have stayed in close contact with people in domestic cases. second, people in the case of households were more likely than those households control to do the cleaning around the house or factory or outdoors land a hand plow in the fields or gardens. However, it is unclear whether the risk of contracting HPS is due to perform these tasks, or by entering the closed-up room or closet to get the tools required for these tasks.

In November 1993, the specific hantavirus that causes isolated outbreaks of Four Corners. The Special Pathogens Branch at the CDC used a network of deer mice that had been trapped near the New Mexico home of a person who had the disease and grow the virus from the laboratory. Shortly afterwards, independent, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) also grow the virus, of people in New Mexico who have the disease as well as from a mouse trapped in California.

The new viruses are called viruses Muerto Canyon – later turned into Sin Nombre virus (SNV) – and a new disease caused by a virus called hantavirus syndrome, pulmonary, or HPS

isolation of the virus in. outstanding matter of months. This success is based on the close cooperation of all institutions and individuals involved in investigating the outbreak, the basic research of other hantaviruses have been done at the CDC and USAMRIID, and the sustainable development of modern molecular virology tests. To put the rapid isolation of Sin Nombre virus in perspective, it took several decades for hantavirus was first discovered, Hantaan virus, be isolated.

As part of an effort to find the source of the virus, the researchers located and examine the stored samples from the lung tissue of people who had died of a lung disease that can not be explained. Some of these samples showed evidence of previous infection with the Sin Nombre virus-which suggests that the disease existed before the “first” known plague-it’s just not yet recognized!

The other early cases of HPS have been found by examining tissue samples belonging to people who had died of adult respiratory distress syndrome described. With this method, the earliest known cases of HPS have been confirmed to have occurred a Utah man 38 years in 1959.

Interestingly, while HPS is unknown epidemiology and medical community, there is evidence that it recognized the place other. Navajo Indians, some of whom are contracted HPS during an outbreak in 1993, recognizes a disease similar in their medical traditions, and really associate the incident with the rat. As striking, Navajo medical beliefs agree with public health recommendations for preventing the disease.

But why this sudden cluster of cases? The key answer to this question is that, during this period, there are suddenly a lot of rats than usual. Four Corners area has been in drought for several years. Then, in early 1993, heavy snow and rainfall helps plants and drought-stricken animals to revive and grow in a larger amount than usual. This area deer mice had plenty to eat, and as a result they reproduced so quickly that there are ten times more mice in May 1993 than had occurred in May 1992. With so many mice, it is more likely that mice and humans will come into contact with each other, and thus more likely that the hantavirus carried by rats that will be transmitted to humans.

“Although person-to-person spread of [HPS] has not been documented by one of the hantaviruses other known, we are concerned [during this outbreak] because we are dealing with a new agent,” said Charles Vitek, a medical investigator CDC.

researchers and clinicians investigate outbreaks are ongoing not only groups concerned about this disease. Shortly after first HPS patients died and it became clear that a new disease that affects people in the area, and that no one knew how it was transmitted, the news media began reporting widespread outbreaks. has been widespread concern in the community ensued.

Unfortunately, the first victims of the plague Navajo. news reports focused on this fact, and one of the growing perception that an unknown disease is somehow associated with the Navajo. As a result, Navajo found themselves at the center of intense media attention and objects of the concerns some people.

By later in the summer of 1993, the media frenzy has calmed down a bit, and the source of the disease, pointing. Researchers determined that, like other hantaviruses, the virus that causes HPS is not transmitted from person to person by means of other infections, such as the common cold, perhaps. The exception to this was the outbreak of HPS in Argentina in 1996. Evidence of this outbreak showed that the strain of hantaviruses in South America may transmissable from person to person.

To date, no cases of HPS have been reported in the United States where the virus is transmitted from one person to another. In fact, in a study of health care workers were exposed to either the patient or specimen infected with hantaviruses related types (which cause different diseases in humans), no workers showed evidence of infection or disease.

In Chile and Argentina, rare cases of person to person transmission has occurred among close contacts of the sick person with this type of hantavirus called Andes virus.

After the initial outbreak, a national medical society asked to report any cases of illness with symptoms similar to the HPS that can not be explained by other causes. As a result, additional cases have been reported.

Since 1993, researchers have found that there is only one hantavirus that cause HPS, but some. In June 1993, the bridge inspector Louisiana who have not traveled to the Four Corners area developed HPS. An investigation begins. the patient’s tissues tested for the presence of antibodies to hantavirus. The results led to the discovery of hantavirus others, called Bayou virus, which is associated with a carrier, rice rats (Oryzomys palustris). At the end of 1993, a 33-year Florida man down with symptoms of HPS; he later recovered. This person also did not travel to the Four Corners area. A similar investigation revealed yet another hantavirus, named Black Creek Canal virus, and its operator, the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Other cases occurred in New York. This time, Sin Nombre-like viruses called New York-1, and the white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), has been involved as a carrier.

Recently, cases of HPS is derived from related hantaviruses have been documented in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, the manufacture of HPS pan-hemispheric disease.

This page information is developed using CDC Preventing Hantavirus video and article resources listed in the bibliography.

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