corona virus en chine bilan

  • 27 min read
  • Nov 12, 2019

Coronavirus en Chine : le bilan passe à 80 morts
Coronavirus en Chine : le bilan passe à 80 morts

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pandemic disease in 2019-2020 coronavirus is referred to and caused by, initiated in December 2019 by then spread around the world. March 11, 2020, the Covid of-19 becomes a pandemic and demand for the saturation point in the hospital and reinforcement (elimination of physical contact, kisses and handshakes, late meetings and large events as well as travel and unnecessary, promotion, implementation, etc. ). Interim lower than in the previous coronavirus epidemic around 1-2%. According to (ie the average number of individuals infected person can infect as contagious) are estimated between 1.4 and 2.5.

The Chinese government has implemented a complicated procedure confinement of people, and placed several towns and quarantine areas, while closing many public sites and use significant resources to health. Managing the epidemic, touted by the Chinese government itself, angered many Chinese residents who testified via social networks.

First, the WHO has not declared a state, but vigilant and others and asked to take action, then providing state of emergency sanitation Jan. 30

On January 13, the first case was found outside of mainland China. Two cruise ships (and) are also affected. The total number of patients outside China exceeded 1,500 people in mid-February ,.

The international response was organized relatively quickly: limited and patients suspected of trying to prevent or inhibit the formation of new. On February 25, the number of new cases reported daily outside China is higher than in this country ,,. In fact, in the first months of 2020, the 19-Covid going global, leading to mass cancellations of sports and cultural events around the world, threatening the global economy, triggering extraordinary measures such as banning all citizens entering the area, defined by the President, the closure of the borders of many countries and led to in Europe and 12th March.

On March 18, more than 218,000 cumulative cases confirmed worldwide, including about 84.500 cured and 9000 died. More than 150 countries and regions affected, with major outbreaks in, in, in, in, and. 13 Mar WHO stated that “Europe is now the epicenter of Covid-19.”

The effects of the pandemic included, and dissemination of information online and false conspiracy theories about the virus.

While the epidemiological situation was developing rapidly, data on the virus, disease, epidemics and pandemics shared by researchers as of January 5, less than a week after the official declaration of its existence. Pre-publication first appeared two weeks after a statement on 19 January.

Warning: Some data gaps exist (eg Mid-March is less tests to determine how many asymptomatic carriers exist, and it is possible that there have been several strains of different virulence. Traffic); Emergency medical discoveries and scientific and medical update issued by replay by colleagues faster and less conscientious than usual, and sometimes before prepublication peer review; the quality of secondary data and primary sources must therefore be interpreted with caution.

are overexposed (1716 cases with a total of 44 672 confirmed cases or 3.8%), mainly (63% of the city with 1080 patients). This is not surprising because they did not immediately know that this is a new virus, the human immunity does not exist. But the important fact, 14.8% of the confirmed cases among health care workers have been serious or critical (although only five were killed in this period). Many seem not to have been adequately covered by, suggesting that the virus is not just through droplets.

The pandemic caused by virus types rounded and covered bulge (consisting of various proteins) hegiving the appearance of a crown ,.

This is similar to the 80%. This is while the first appointed by and under the term novel coronavirus-Ncov 2019 or 2019 before being appointed on the recommendation of. Disease caused by this virus permanently named Covid 19-11 February 2020 by.

This is Sarbecovirus. Sound, stable and consists of 29 903, is for the first time on January 5 by a team of (China) ,,,,,.

The duration of transmission of the virus would, in its support, from 24 to 72 hours. Plastic promoting their lives ,. Under a temperature of 20 (20 ° C) continues again, above 30 ° C life is greatly reduced.

Because there is no form of light; more patients are in the hospital and not be transmitted from 3 to 4 days after the onset of clinical signs, which facilitates control of the pandemic.

January 24, 2020, but still unknown the exact modalities of transmission between humans.

The so-called Covid-19 (short for “coronavirus disease in 2019” (litt. “Coronavirus Disease 2019″) was so named by February 11, 2020 ,. He is also known, including, under the name of the former ” NCP (Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia). ”

On February 20, the 19th Covid symptoms similar to the flu:

The fever may appear several days after the cough.

Many people carry the virus without symptoms, or with mild symptoms (cough small, fever) without.

When Covid 19 suspected in a person, the test used to confirm infection, also the subject of symptoms. Not having a sensitivity of 100%, especially early in infection.

However, before the number of cases increase, the French Government stated that systematic research contacts had become useless. Test all patients with symptoms lead to saturate the testing industry at the expense of serious cases and collective fragile structure.

indicates that there is no specific treatment against the disease, we can treat the symptoms and communicate the results of ongoing clinical trials when available. It is advisable not to take any medication.

In France, the health minister recommended in case of a fever, do not take drugs (such as and the like) which could be a factor of aggravation of the infection. Treatment of fever or pain in patients with Covid19 or other respiratory viral infections based on, without exceeding the dose of 60 mg / kg / day and 3 g / day ,.

In contrast, patients treated with anti-inflammatory, or other such, for chronic conditions should not stop treatment without a prescription.

other immunosuppressive drugs, mainly used for the treatment, including treatment guidelines China after a positive study ,,. He underwent tests at five hospitals in Italy after showing positive results in people with serious diseases. May be given after the blood serum ferritin test, which should act against cyokines storm syndrome could be the cause of death ,.

In February 2020, the Chinese Government has recommended the injection of large doses. The study of treatment with vitamin C is very ill patients have been in vogue since 2018.

Referring to a specialist, reported March 11 that 60 to 70% of Germany can be infected. It seems that it is based on the epidemiology of Marc Lipsitch declaration which gives a figure of 40 to 70% of the world population several days earlier.

said on March 15 that according to “what scientists say, 50 to 70% of the population eventually end up contaminated by the virus, and it ended a virus because it creates a form of immune control and therefore turns the virus off automatically. ”

In the early 2000s, coronavirus transmitted to humans or other sources of zoonoses found in a variety of wild mammals in particular are sold in the marketpalm civet (), raccoon dogs and Pangolin: China.

The first reported illness in December 2019 to work on, in,. Media (,) resounded in early January 2020 ,.

On January 21, according to Dr. Xu Xintian (Institut Pasteur of Shanghai) and colleagues, SARS-CoV-2 have a common ancestor with the coronavirus and analog, evoking chauve- HKU9-1 rat coronavirus. On January 23, the first, while the virus published by members of the Institute of Virology, Wuhan, Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital of the University and show that SARS-CoV-2out is 96% homologous with a bat coronavirus.
On February 5, Arnaud Fontanet () because it thinks that bats are wild, and the virus will occur in humans at least until mid-November, through the animal market, is still unknown.
Note: in 2020, the scientists noted that if the bats are involved, outside the criteria of the taxonomic, geographic and biological cycles, then it should be a temporary increase in the risk of shedding coronavirus when small becomes independent (because adolescents are subject shedding the virus). Contact with the bat and feces should be avoided at this time of year (for example by prohibiting access to the cave). It would be an alternative strategy to slaughter are sometimes mentioned, ethical question; which can lead to higher levels of pathogens; favorable to biodiversity; and prevents us from -clés (bat – depending on the species – or nocturnal effective mosquito vectors of other diseases; eliminate the epidemic intensifies expose bats, etc.).

Finally, the Agricultural University, it shows a 99% similarity between the new virus and coronavirus, animals that used in Asia and particularly sold on the market Huanan.

One of the hypotheses put forward at the beginning of March 2020 is further Internet platform popular in Asia (eg, and) may have encouraged risky behavior, conveying “” ( “Food» Video shows the filming eat strange foods or dangerous or in bulk). in the example host a live, bat soup. Other times it is the African snail, frog, or octopus is eaten, sometimes raw, if still alive (especially) despite the risks they are carriers of the bacteria or the risk of wild virus.

The role of the market in Huanan is uncertain because epidemiological analysis of the first reported cases showed that they seem to have frequented this market ,,,. He did not have to bat sold in this market (animals also are not consumed in the region, in opposition to the spread of rumors), but among the great diversity sold there, there proved to be a more likely source.

On the first case of December 31, 2019 (for the symptoms to appear more than three weeks earlier, December 8). The market was closed on January 1; individual isolated symptoms. More than 700 people, including more than 400 health workers coming into close contact with suspected cases were also monitored. A new special test confirms the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in 41 people in Wuhan’s business district, two of which he later described as a couple and three of the same family, working with fruit stalls marine market. 9 Jan, Wuhan first patient (61 years old) died, the other (69 years old) on 14 January.

On January 24, the reviews show that the first symptoms arise from the date of the post-SARS-CoV 2 created 1 December 2019 in patients who did not attend the market, and the third 41 reported cases in Wuhan in December 2019 pandemic will born before December 2019 may be beyond the Wuhan market ,.

human transmission was confirmed on January 20 at the, the head of the health committee investigating the outbreak ,.
The fear that the epidemic extends to traveling in China-related peaks.

On January 22, according to Vice Minister of China, this virus “could mutate and spread more easily.” 25 JanIER, said the situation was “serious”; epidemic is accelerating (pandemic March 11).

On January 26, for Professor Neil Ferguson, a public health expert of: approximately 100 000 people are already infected. Hong Kong Faculty of Medicine puts the number at 43000-27 January.
On the same day, stating that 30 453 people are under observation without specifying how.

On February 13, the criteria, increasing the number of cases. In fact, overwhelmed, hospitals Hubei based on chest x-ray, without analysis of the samples; isolates and previously treated patients is a priority, and the results of tests require 48 hours while the radiographic diagnosis is immediate). Besides simply replace care than patients tested positive. For others, the bill is a few thousand or even ten thousand. Many are reluctant to take the test.

basic reproductive number (R0): This is the average number of persons infected person will infect because it will be contagious.
At the beginning of the pandemic virus (China) are (R0, basis) Covid-19 ranged from 2-3 to 5; it’s much more than that SARS and mer. According to the Chinese CDC, 80% of patients (80.9%) had asymptomatic or mild pneumonia but release large amounts of the virus; In addition, the high transmission rate (3.83% of patients), two elements that make it very difficult to combat infection.

ETE team modeling group (Laboratory MIVEGEC ,, IRD) published estimates of the epidemic reproduction rate Covid-19 in France. On March 12, R0 estimated R (t) = 2.34 (with 95% of the value of between 1.16 and 3.64).

speed of propagation: short seems to be in Italy and Belgium, and longer in Germany. (According to Marc Wathelet, Belgian specialist human coronavirus virologist at this pace, without drastic action, Belgium could have an additional 150 000 patients in 3 weeks). Propagation speed also depends on the efficiency, but other factors need to be considered: the middle of March 5 or 6 strains (according to Mr Wathelet) have been circulating in the world, different in terms of virulence and transmission.

Air pollution (very high in China’s urban and industrial) weakens the lungs and immune system. This could encourage a secondary infection and death worsened. Contribute and respiratory infections, and we know that Covid 19 kills most patients already carrying cardiovascular disease or lung disease.

Contrary to what happened during this time, communicate a lot about this pandemic although authorities did not immediately perceived gravity of the situation, for example by not canceling the banquet 40 000 January 19 four days before the quarantine Wuhan, the mayor openly admit mistakes , However, a press report that criticized the government in the fight against the pandemic is punishable by imprisonment.

On January 28, the rehabilitated eight doctors who were arrested on 1 January, accused of spreading false information about the virus. They work in Wuhan, Neurology Department of the Hospital, University of Medicine or cancer center. One died shortly after coronavirus, was accused announced that seven patients suffering from, has been forced by police to sign an undertaking not to publish the message. Chinese social networking has taken over the case, accusing mainly want to hide the seriousness of the situation. This rehabilitation could be a response to criticism over his handling of the crisis, while deferring blame the local political authorities later accused of putting pressure on scientists and have minimized the level of the epidemic.

On January 22, the Chinese government up in three cities of the province is mainly affected by the virus and they are the cradle for risky: and or a combined population of over twenty million. Chinese authorities banned all air, rail, road and river to and from the three cities, with InterIOR that public transport (,) is also suspended.

Authorities also ordered the closure of public places of entertainment such as still or. All residents were also ordered not to leave the city unless the authorities give permission to them. However, the mayor of Wuhan, said that five million people have left the city before its quarantine ,.

To help limit the spread of the virus, health authorities make Wuhan compulsory to wear one in a public place or face a fine.

In addition, the city launched January 23 to build two, one of which has an area of ​​25,000 m2 and can accommodate up to a thousand patients and can accommodate 1600 patients of the hospital under his direction.

On January 25, the Chinese government expand the quarantine zone for most of Hubei province, around 56 million people.

On January 30, Tang Zhihong, head of the health of Huanggang, licensed by the Chinese government because of the inability to respond to questions about the extent of the disease in the city during the Chinese state television reportage. its intervention led to more than 500,000 comments on social networking China, most furious against these leaders.

On January 31, the decision to repatriate people from Wuhan to live abroad because of “practical difficulties faced by foreign residents in Hubei Province, and in particular those of Wuhan”.

Some decide to barricade and do not allow foreigners to avoid contamination. For example, at the village entrance Tianjiaying (located 45 minutes drive), some residents set up a dam and foreign visitors of the official ban on the cross. About 1700 citizens, they must show identification to enter the village. They must register by providing their name, phone number, ID number and a list of cities they have visited recently. Finally, the test temperature is performed; if the result is positive, the person is asked to make a living in a nearby hospital ,.

also cause the price of masks in China. In Beijing, a pharmacist fined three million increased mask prices 143 yuan to 850 yuan.

located but more than a thousand kilometers north of Wuhan, celebration planned 25 Jan canceled, temporarily closed until further notice “for the contamination to avoid associated in the stands.” On January 27, while the Chinese New Year holiday is to end four days later, the authorities decided to extend three days to reduce the risk of transmission.

, which is less than seven hundred kilometers east of Wuhan, the park also closed on Jan. 24.

(nine hundred and thirty kilometers south of Wuhan), the authorities changed four sites holiday camps in the area for those who may have been in contact with carriers of coronavirus and expensive bracelets electronics for people quarantined at home. On January 26, the amusement park of the region (including and) is closing. On January 27, the Hong Kong banned the entry into its territory of a person who is in Hubei province and every tourist will spend more than two weeks, with the exception of Hong Kong.

The schools are closed, at least up to 20 of April.

On February 28, the dogs tested positive but without symptoms of this disease are quarantined.

Changes in the patient’s method of counting twice. On February 13, introduced criteria for patients were tested positive or not to look for the virus in the sample. The first change to explain the sharp increase of cases until February 13th. A week later, returned to China only a virological test.

and each reported one case on Jan. 22.

On January 30, after the discovery of the case, the head of the city until now spared, all regions of Chinas infected.

At the beginning of February, the number of deaths exceeded the epidemic in 2002-2003.

In this graph, which covers the period from 31 December 2019-16 March 2020, the cases, and recovered dead cumulative and are in addition. Therefore it is not a graphical representation of the evolution of the level of disease in the sense (only the orange bar that shows the number of existing cases on certain days).

Balance of infections and deaths reported by some countries (China, Iran, Japan) is questioned by some sources.

Every country deals valued in accordance with the number of different protocols. France, for example, can calculate accurately the student population, the latter access to testing at the beginning of severe symptoms are found (eg, in the town).

Mathematics evolution of the pandemic predict the likelihood of the evolution of a pandemic based on data provided by health agencies (for Europe). It also helps determine the effectiveness of the security measures in place. Among other types of modeling is used by Covid-19 to build a notice to the French government. One example of such modeling provided by this reference. Other models, including the computer program to perform calculations, provided by this reference.

The fear is that this epidemic (and pandemic) to reach the countries that will not be able to handle it.

However, on January 23 a decision that it was too early to declare that the situation of succession.

The organization reiterated that position on January 28 stating that the risk is “very high in China, higher regional and higher level globally.” This position is a response to China’s demand on the health impact of the crisis on the economy. However, epidemiologists believe while that “public health emergency of international concern has been expressed previously and [that] there may be pressure. They may not be the fact of China, as I read it, but it struck me as rather influential Member States who have no interest in any emergency is declared too fast and want, for example, to allow time to repatriate their citizens. ”

However, on January 30 decided to declare a public health emergency of international concern ,, but not recommended restricting travel and international trade, contrary to most of the government’s decision.

On February 22, managing director, is concerned about the number of cases of coronavirus no clear relationship with China or another confirmed case and warned that the window of opportunity to contain the epidemic to shrink. This outbreak was reclassified as a pandemic on 11 March.

On February 25, Dr. Bruce Aylward, the head of the joint mission of and China, said that the world “not ready” to deal with the epidemic coronavirus, pandemic.

Some airports are implementing an aircraft arriving from China. This screening is done by controlling the temperature of the front travelers. However, these measures can not stop the spread of a pandemic outside China.

Although not recommended, some countries decided to repatriate their citizens by special nonstop flights, often with measures of confinement on arrival. Thus, considering Paris on January 28 in the repatriation of 250 French from Wuhan, provided they are “healthy and without symptoms.” This repatriation wrinkle Chinese government considers their lack of confidence in the Chinese healthcare system.

(EU) citizens repatriated with the assistance of France. It separates the apparently healthy individuals suspected cases or contaminated. Meanwhile, the Japanese carried out on the same field two groups of people.

policies adopted by the United States for their repatriation Wuhan limited confinement in a specified place for fourteen days.

On January 31, more and more countries recommend their citizens to travel to Chine, while the number of airlines suspended flights to and from China increased. 31 Jan US citizens advised not to travel to China and within them to leave the country, which has been condemned by the Chinese government. In 2018, there were in China more than 30.5 million foreign tourists, mainly from South Korea, Japan, USA, Malaysia and Singapore. China is, however, that the purpose of the eleventh for European citizens traveling outside the EU by.

Meanwhile, China decided to repatriate people from Wuhan to live abroad because of “practical difficulties faced by foreign residents in Hubei Province, and in particular the Wuhan” that while the signs are recognized in France, Italy, Canada and the UK ,.

On February 8, epidemiologists Yves Charpak said “repatriation of expatriates from certain countries not justified in my opinion from a health standpoint, even the size of the risk of exporting the disease.” These fears seem to be confirmed: several passengers tested negative tested positive for the evacuation of the ship on arrival in their home country.

As a precautionary measure, announced the closure of its borders to tourists on January 22, with most coming from,.

On January 26, agriculture, since the confirmation of cases.

health workers threaten strike if the borders are not closed to travelers coming from and this measure taken by the authorities on January 28, which resulted in the cessation of all links.

On January 30, the Russian government ordered the closure and show that the Chinese people no longer have the opportunity to obtain an electronic visa that allows them to travel to the area, and for the inside. On February 3, it says that it will do the expulsion of foreigners infected with the new coronavirus.

On the same day, once identified two cases on its territory, a decision state emergency procedures for a period of six months. It delaying flights to and from destinations.

On February 1, delaying air links with China and the issuance of visas to China.

Many countries impose new restrictions on migrants from the beginning of February. Countries (except that continues to provide) to suspend the issuance of visas to citizens of China from February 10. Countries limit of February was, that, the, this, that, this, that, this, that, this, that, this, that, and from 31 January. These states either prohibit the temporary entry of Chinese nationals or people who have recently traveled to China, both stopped to give them a visa, or to impose new visa for citizens of China. The refuse entry to its citizens back from China, while no longer open its borders to visitors coming from or,.

issuing visas to citizens of Italy from 28 Feb delay. Furthermore the passengers were quarantined from risk areas are required to enter the territory of India.

In France, take final action in January to prevent the landing of cruise ship passengers if suspected cases are on board. February 1 and 2, under pressure from the island and after discussions with the company responsible for the tourists came, one reject a call two cruise ships.

On February 11, the sequence of extraordinary measures for all passengers from China and the backup after the technical control and health, to refuse entry to the territory.

Touched by the pandemic, the tool of restrictive measures on February 22 that prohibit entry into its territory from tourists who come from, from, to, from, and. On February 26, all travel to Iran is prohibited, as well as ticket sales to the country. On February 27 ,, and added to the list of countries subject to restrictive measures. Travelers with a residence permit in Bahrain must undergo a Quarantaine mandatory, even in the absence of symptoms. People with symptoms Covid-19 will soon be placed in the hospital.

On February 23, the closed confines of the four neighbors: it ,, and.

On February 25 imposes a quarantine descendants of airline travelers coming from or having visited the country in the last fourteen days.

At the end of February, which requires every tourist who comes from or up-to-house for 14 days in isolation arrival in the region; entry to the territory is absolutely forbidden for tourists from China and Iran. Suspended flights to and from these countries.

enforced from late February to, and cross-border coach services from risk areas (included) to fill out medical forms for all passengers in the event of forty. Have the right to medical examination at 30 kilometers from the German border.

To, from March 1, all passengers departing or arriving in Italy must submit to control their temperature. Furthermore the passengers have been in northern Italy fourteen days before entering US territory can be submitted by the authorities to the house for fourteen days.

The entry is prohibited to passengers coming from its territory, unless the subjects of Jordan. Visa for people who are traveling in Italy, China, South Korea or Iran in the last two weeks was rejected. Another traveler who needed to take their temperature and report any symptoms to quarantine possible. Suspend all flights to or back from Italy until March 15, with the possibility of extension. arrival banned in the territory since February 28th of passengers by land, sea and air from, of, by, and Italy, reserving the right to modify the list. As a result, many flights were canceled and airlines are restricted transit.

On March 2 international airports require passengers arriving from risk countries (including Italy) health questionnaire, temperature measurement and, if necessary, hospital or home quarantine. This among other things that (compulsory quarantine of 14 days even without symptoms were charged, and any traveler after visiting China in two months previously set for the isolation required for two days in the structure of service front for medical quarantine in a precise structure), which, it ,.

delayed flight to Italy. Suspend all flights and with Iran and impose health measures on arrival to other travelers, which could include the denial of entry for tourists region of Italy, and.

brand shall take temperature and fill a medical card on arrival for air travelers and delaying flights to or from destinations all over.

On March 2, they are 80 states that prohibit in their territories the arrival of tourists from South Korea, or that impose restrictions (quarantine imposed or voluntary). Since 29 February, while it only requires that the kids are back this country do not return to their schools for fourteen days, such as northern Italy.

On March 4, requires mandatory quarantine for travelers Israel of French nationality, of, of, of, and, and a ban on the arrival in the region for citizens of those countries. On March 5, the company therefore decided to suspend regular connections with Israel and Ramon airport.

On March 9, the government suspended the visa exemption for citizens of seven EU countries (France, Spain, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland) and the United Kingdom. The same size have been brought there a few days to Italy. medical examination required at border crossings with Germany and the Czech Republic.

On March 10, suspended all flights to Italy, and (until April 9). All lines of New York – Rome disturbed until March 30. Austria filters for its Frontiere back tourists from Italy. The entrance is forbidden for people of Italy, except Austria which should be incorporated into self-isolation on arrival for fourteen days. Travelers must show a medical certificate and the people in the course forbidden to stop. imposes a mandatory quarantine travelers from Italy, Germany and France. Spain breaks all airline to Italy. delaying flights to Italy from 14 March to 3 April.

The government (the state in which four cases were reported on 10 March) said that the inclusion of a temporary ban on Serbian territory applied to people from Italy, some provinces in China, South Korea, Iran and parts of Switzerland. Similar measures were announced (where sea and air disturbed by Italy) and.

closed its border with Italy on March 10. air and sea suspended ties with Italy, as well.

On March 11, Australia banned entry to its territory to any person from Italy. Imposes a quarantine on travelers from China, Spain, France and Italy. Austria closed its border with Italy and a last stop rail with Italy.

The announcement on March 12 at the end of March 13 (March 14 at 05:00 for France), the ban for one month into the foreign people they are from the European region, in particular Schengen, so with the exception of Britain and Ireland, and returning residents in the US who will be subject to medical tests. Therefore, countries are Germany, Austria, in Spain, Finland, France, Hungary ,, Italy, the ,, Luxembourg, Malta ,, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland and the Czech Republic.

On March 12, which closed its borders to all foreigners with the exception of Poland, and the closure of all international airports, schools, cultural and recreational facilities. On the same day, the steps already taken Strengthens the Czech Republic, decreeing a state of emergency for thirty days, and prohibit entry into the country of the region risks fifteen countries including Italy, France and Germany. These measures strengthen day by closing its borders to all foreigners.

Germany imposed health checks at the border with France from March 12 to 17 hours.

On March 13, the decision to close the borders. Denmark also closed its borders by land, sea and air at least to 12 of April. The closure of borders to foreign countries March 13th. do the same for non-residents.

On March 13, which was introduced back, case by case, all of her. Log into Switzerland from Italy is allowed only Swiss citizens, persons with residence permits, they are traveling to Switzerland for professional reasons, as well as those with compelling reasons to enter Switzerland from Italy. Transit and transportation of goods is still allowed.

On March 14, the closed and all air and sea links.

In addition to its border with China last month, 14 Mar closing the land border with Polish and foreign.

On March 14, the United States adds to the British and Irish citizens who can not enter the country. This step is effective 15 Mar on midnight (Washington time).

On March 15, the decision to close its partial and, at 8 am the next morning ,.

On March 17, under the regime.

On January 26, speaking at a Mass in praising “the Chinese community involvement in the fight against the epidemic has already begun.” He asked in his closing prayer: “Pray for the sick virus attacks throughout China.” It is stated on several occasions, such as at a hearing on March 11. “At this difficult moment, I stand by those who suffer [for coronavirus]. I thank you with all my heart hospital staff, doctors, nurses, nurses and volunteers.”

14, the Dalai Lama, expressing concern about the epidemic (pandemic until 11 March) on 29 January. Speaking to a group of faithful at his residence in it, he urged to pray for it to be controlled, which states that “the viral disease being introduced in China. China is historically a Buddhist country and we, as practitioners of Buddhism, Sanskrit or Pali tradition, to pray collectively equal to the epidemic disappears. ”

On February 10, during a press conference, the president of the United States, thanked the Chinese president for efforts to fight the spread of the virus and caring; he said of China: “I think they did a good job. I had a long discussion with President […] he is very confident.”

Since the beginning of the 19th Covid, improvement and against people of origin and other countries has been remarkable in many countries, ,,,, particular, and; some countries also saw anti-Chinese sentiment growing. Although China has received support online and offline, many residents of Wuhan and Hubei report having experienced discrimination based on their area of ​​origin. Because the epidemic spread to new countries, Italy, coronavirus in Europe, is also the subject of suspicion and xenophobia.

Residents of many countries like, or a petition signed by pressing their governments to forbid the Chinese to enter their countries. In #ChineseDontComeToJapan has been trending on Twitter late January ,. In China say they are facing increasing levels of racist abuse, with reported cases of abuse. Inside, the demonstrators attacked a bus carrying Ukrainian and foreign refugees Wuhan. Students from, who shares a student in the major cities of India have become victims of abuse associated with the outbreak of coronavirus. As on February 4, the Japanese travelers have been quarantined, though they do not have symptoms related to coronavirus. In the cities of the Russian and Chinese nationals are subject to quarantine campaign, and by condemned by them as. Chinese Embassy in Germany has recognized the increasing cases hostile to the citizens of the epidemic. Asian children were ostracized and ridiculed for their origins in close proximity. Many Franco-Vietnam also reported being harassed.

On January 30, the organizers of emergency ‘problem statement advising all countries to be wary of’ the principles of Article 3, ‘which, according to WHO, is warning against “actions that promote stigma and discrimination” in action national response to the epidemic.

Another consequence of the disease, which is rapidly accelerating, is the cancellation of major events in the field of sports, the film industry and other industries, such as festivals and concerts, technology conferences, fashion shows or sports.

Some of the major sporting events were canceled or postponed, including or. epidemic is also a concern for it must take place from the end of July.

The entertainment industry is also affected, various bands suspend or cancel their concert tour. Lots of great theater, as also suspend all their performances.

to the means to prevent and reduce the risk of infection and contagious disease early. collective and individual shares.

On March 15 guidelines – published for the attention of national and local authorities, to help protect children and schools through appropriate contingency plans for places and activities. They recommend to make children aware of good hygiene practices, encouraging them not to be patient and psychological support they adjusted.

Two-master words to limit the spread of the virus smust limit the amount of contact with other people, and respect the rules of hygiene e frequent washing.

or “social” is the physical distance, while, to one another. It aims to avoid close contact (including handshakes, kisses, etc.) that promote the transmission to curb the epidemic. The recommended maintaining at least one meter to other people, especially if they are coughing, sneezing or fever.

Since March, after China, many countries impose or recommend voluntary isolation, quarantine or isolation in the hospital (for people at risk or most ill patients). They suggested that non-essential travel all the countries and regions affected by the epidemic. They impose closure, and many work places ,,, and other places are densely crowded, and recommends when possible. In early March, 61 countries have announced or that the closure of educational institutions (in the whole country for 39 countries), which affects more than 420 million students and teachers;

physical distancing can be broken at home ( “self-isolation”, “self-quarantine”) to restrict travel and contacts at risk ,,. In mid-March, the UK so often recommends washing hands does not contaminate objects and surfaces; always keep a distance of two meters between people; and to make other purchases. As long as the symptoms worsened significantly, did not contact health services.

Fourteen days is recommended for those diagnosed bearer of Covid-19 does not infect the other out, and / or those suspected of being infected declare their symptoms. health authorities recommend that as far as possible and then stay at home except to get medical care by calling in advance. Telephone medical consultations sometimes. During mild symptoms, if there is no close contact with the patient, carefully respecting the rules of hygiene and stay home until recovery if possible

In an outbreak, the elderly and suffering from serious chronic diseases primarily driven not get out as much as possible and not to keep the children.

Line explain when and how to use a mask; mask is not generally recommended for (except near the sick at home, for example). Masks, however, widely used by people in good health, in, in, and. The mask is recommended to caregivers and health professionals, who must wear masks certified N95 or equivalent, in addition to other personal protective equipment (goggles and held on to protect the direct contact and eye and aerosols).

Search for a contact who has a patient before a diagnosis is an important method for health authorities to prevent or find another pain as possible and limit the transmission chain.

false information about the virus and circulate the epidemic; who replied on his website and said in part:

Attention residents are also interested.

In late February, questions have arisen over the government’s reaction and, judging some debate as to which is applied excessively ,. accused journalists and exaggerating the threat of a pandemic to hurt him politically ,.

leaders like Donald Trump wants to convince First, comparing mortality Covid-19 with seasonal influenza (flu while affecting a larger number of people with a de facto death). Professor Eric Caumes, Manager of Infectious and Tropical Diseases 27 Feb publicly questioned by the president, shrink deadly virus, may be less than first forecast, he said, but felt that he was already circulating in the country. alarmist considered calling it “extremely dangerous” virus on February 27. Both views are reflected in the press and in which he was in trouble the first time to estimate the size of the natural hazards and to assess whether réactions proportionate. Some minimize the danger of a new coronavirus, comparing Covid-19 for arguments flu seems then forwarded by the opinion, and taken by people interviewed in the villages contaminated in everyday life and in the policy.
For Professor Bruno Lina February 28th was too early to compare with flu Covid-19, the two diseases do not affect the same person, on and off of Covid-19 is not well known.
But the deadliest of Covid-19 appears superior to that of influenza (1 2.3% less against 0.2 to 0.5%), there is thus a high risk of death in the case of large propagation.

Uncertainty epidemiology including difficulties related disease detection. The first test produced quickly, but industrial output does not follow an exponential growth of the number of potential patients (certain asymptomatic). Stem the spread of the virus is much more difficult.

On March 1, a study involving 72 314 cases discovered lethal than 2.3%, equivalent to around 2.5%. Comparison remains difficult because it is not known whether there were also cases of asymptomatic or undetectable in 1918. For Covid-19, we do not know the number of undetected cases. Serological tests on a large population sample from the infected area would permit, but not enough test kits available.
Cases where the number of cases detected (more than 700) may be close to the actual number of cases showing nearby turn off 1%, the index slightly the level of danger of the virus.

Supporters of the legislation does not minimize the dangers and do everything to slow the epidemic, which is spreading rapidly in many countries after reaching the entire province of China in one month. Epidemiology () said a 24 Feb that 40 to 70% of the world population could be infected within a year, counting asymptomatic cases, added the next day that the figure associated with the adult population who did subject to systematic screening. Virologists on February 28, saying that we can not only slow down the epidemic. A nutritional expectations by a lack of clear spread in the southern hemisphere, is that the arrival of summer can slow the disease. But 2003 is, he said in September it spread, and it was not yet familiar with Covid-19.

In this context the public, state and international economic institutions (central banks, among others) sought to reassure residents and investors, to avoid such a market crisis and economic recession. Global stock markets have continued to experience a loss of 15% between December 31 and 28 February with the acceleration of the crisis since the end of February.

pandemic caused in an area where it is rampant rumors and purchasing behavior of frenzied commodities, causing supply problems, including the shortage even temporarily, including from or in Japan.

artist track record of delivering instruction attract the attention of the population on the dangers of the virus, prompting health workers and gives hope to the sick.

As such, the artist of the entertainment company culture, Alvin Oon, adapted to the lyrics of the song, “may reflect the severity of the problem while giving a little light and positive” by the soothing message instructive. Titled Against virus, starting with the words “Hello virus from Wuhan Reviews another issue here again,” and inviting the world’s citizens to be vigilant and fight together against the virus. Airing on the YouTube channel and on its Facebook page, the songs are translated, and in, and the version is in preparation.

At the same time, the head of poster artists such as singer-actor, a member of the group, the original actress or actor, singer, stuntman, writer, director and producer has recorded titled Believe In Love Will Triumph. It calls for unity and national strength, he paid tribute to the health and safety officers and workers who set up a bio-secure hospital of 1000 beds in a short time. clips moetween provinces and panoramic, China regions most affected, and ends with a message of solidarity to the victims.

Head ,, request March 14 on behalf of the group, in order to, for and (among others) to participate in the campaign “Safehands” organization in order to encourage people to apply proper hand washing protocol.

coronavirus 2019-2020 pandemic has significant consequences beyond the mere spread of the disease and action. Many reports of shortage of supply of pharmaceuticals and manufactured goods because of interference factories in China. In some regions, particularly the countries affected (such as and), pandemics have been produced and food shortages. The technology industry in particular has warned against any delay in delivery of electronic products. European car industry had its worst drop in a decade, in which the major producers have announced plans to close some plants because of the pandemic. The group is to suspend production at factories in Spain, France and Italy until 22 of March. In addition, 14 hexagonal plant in France, employs 10 000 people, was closed. Car Italian-American also announced the closure of six manufacturing plants in Italy, the inside and one on until the 27th of March. Moreover, it also decided to close all its plants in Europe, including France and the UK port.

Some analysts predicted in January that the economic impact of the epidemic on global growth could exceed. Dr Panos Kouvelis, head of Boeing’s Center, said the 300 billion high impact on the global economy and the effects can be felt for up to two years after the start of the epidemic.

Global stock markets fell in February 24th 2020 due to a significant increase in the number of cases Covid-19 outside. On February 28, 2020, stock markets around the world have the biggest weekly decline since ,, it. The stock market collapsed March 9, 2020, with a drop of several percentage points in the global key. As the pandemic spreads, conferences and world events were canceled or postponed. Although the monetary impact on the travel trade industry and remains to estimate, had to run into the billions and improvement.

On February 19, the British Carbon Brief’s website published an interim analysis of the effects of the pandemic Covid-19 in China. From this analysis, they have reduced a quarter for the period observed during previous years. This is due to reduced production of 15 to 40% in the main industrial sectors use, primarily because, following quarantine measures. Measuring the level in the atmosphere of China carried by satellite confirm reduce dependence on fossil fuels in the country, from 2020, the average rate of 36% lower than the same period in 2019.

In general, containment measures resulted in a drastic reduction of air pollution, including the concentration (NO2), dangerous gases emitted by vehicles and industry. A study by the Research Center for Energy and Clean Air (CREA) Finland, the new coronavirus may have reduced CO2 emissions by at least a quarter of China between the 3rd and February 16th is equivalent to 6% reduction of global emissions during this period. Northern Italy, mainly influenced by pollutants NO2, saw him fall dramatically within a few days, as revealed by measurements made by the satellite Sentinel-5P.

According to researcher François Gemenne geopolitical specialist environmental issues and a member of China showed that the observed decrease in pollution that would save more lives than the virus will be charged.

Steps detention also severely affected. Reduction of 50 to 90% of the bonds and discounts ranging from 60 to 70% of domestic flights were observed. According, this flightrepresented, in 2018, 17% of total CO2 emissions per passenger, which means that the suspension of flights of more than two weeks have reduced global CO2 emissions per passenger by 54%.

With the reduction in energy consumption by the industry, and the reduction of transport emissions, reduced levels of nitrogen dioxide were also observed in northern Italy between 7 Feb and March 8 on a model similar to that observed in China. In addition, in mid-March, the same phenomenon reduction of air pollution seems to repeat itself in many areas of Europe.

In the case of Italy, the decline in tourism also degrade water pollution caused by ships and therefore to clean the canal and to allow a return to aquatic wildlife.

Because of its namesake, Mexican beer brand is found indirectly related to the pandemic. According to a study conducted by 5W Public Relations, 4% of these beer enthusiasts say they most want to buy that brand. 14% of drinkers Corona provides otherwise they would not dare order a drink publicly.

coronavirus pandemic of 2019-2020 showed some similarities to the plot of the movie, was released in 2011. The fiction comes from mutations in the virus. Fictional virus appeared, but not on. The film is experiencing a resurgence of interest. screenwriter, reacting said he traded for two to three years by experts and a visit to the film be as realistic as possible ,,,,.

‘s novel, published in 1947, and published in 1995, saw an increase in sales, in particular.

In his novel, which was published in the (original title: The Eyes of Darkness), American author of the book imagines the existence of the mysterious virus called Wuhan-400. Many websites audiovisual and print media suggest sharing between users many extracts from the novel by Dean Koontz in the first quarter of the 2020s ,,.

In the context of a pandemic, play () also experienced a resurgence of interest, despite the suppression of China.

In Italy, in all cities of the country, people sing to their balconies to give encouragement. They program the weekend of music to sing together classical ,,.

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