At the risk of Hanta virus infection, it is transmitted by field mice, reported campers and hikers:
This is an acute infectious zoonotic disease, which is characterized by a frame that started as flu, ie, fever, severe damage, muscle pain and respiratory catarrhal manifestations. Furthermore, a decrease in blood pressure, tachycardia sudden increase in temperature and breathing difficulties presented. Importantly, most patients died of pneumonia and acute respiratory distress within a few days, because we still do not have a specific treatment.
cases have occurred in Chile and especially in the metropolitan area, with regard to young visitors to areas in the south of the country, where wild rodents have increased in density.
to minimize the risk of hantavirus infection take the following precautions:
Sesma, Metropolitan Environmental Health Service – Santiago, Chile
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What Hanta Virus?
syndrome Hantavirus is an acute infectious disease is usually severe caused by viruses that infect various species of rodents (rats, mice) that remained in their lifetime without causing disease, and you can reach the human body through the respiratory tract or through wound. The disease is known in the East since the beginning of this century, but in West identified hantavirus from the 1950s.
Take this name because the virus is known for many years during the Korean War, Hantang River. AS there is an outbreak in the area of New Mexico, in 1993 with 150 cases, with a mortality rate of 50%. In Argentina the first case known in 1987, and since then has confirmed 70 cases were scattered in the central region (southern province of Santa Fe, southeast of Córdoba and north of Buenos Aires) in the surrounding area Oran Islands Lechiguanas (Entre Rios), in the area around El Bolson and now in Bariloche. The disease has a lethal level is between 50 and 60%. That’s why we say it is an acute disease, which can kill a person in less than a week. Mice that are present in any area, but critical of certain parts of rural or mountainous Andino Patagonica.
This is a very weak virus died with the use of bleach, detergent or disinfectant for home.
In humans can produce two diseases caused by infection with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, which is a fever and respiratory problems, or renal syndrome by dengue, where the kidneys are affected. Frequent headaches, abdominal pain and sore eyes.
Early symptoms of flu appear to have difficulty breathing occurs. These symptoms usually appear one to two weeks after becoming infected with the rodent contact. Cases have been recognized in all the seasons affect the respiratory system.
The disease develops in two stages:
“You can get” at 45 days (maybe less). phase manifested as a flu-like condition which lasts several days, with the addition of muscle pain, cough, fatigue and vomiting, and there are no drugs that increase the box then appears. The best way is to hospitalization of patients at this stage to reliably establish the presence of disease.
A week later appeared to have difficulty breathing. Patients should be referred to intensive care and is a critical point where the patient can die. Approximately between 50 and 60% of those infected die; It depends on how the virus develops in each person, related to the quality of the defense exposed.
Mouse “Gundlach” Reservoir Virus
US researchers They argue that this type of virus transmitted by rodents. Various types of mice transmit the hantaviruses in different geographical regions of the world, and all roedores should be considered potentially dangerous. Each Hanta-virus strain is transmitted by a different species of rodents.
hantavirus “Andes”, a variety known in the Andino Patagonica, lies in the type of rodent extended in this medium. In Lake Puelo, environmental health technicians Black Rio operator arrested seven copies of hantavirus, which is analyzed by the Institute of Viral Diseases in Pergamino.
this rodent, whose scientific name is Oligorizomis Longicadatus (colilargo) has a short body and head (9 cm) tail length (12 cm), small ears, and a relatively long legs back; He lived in the bush and in the forest fringe. Have a habit, especially at night, a good climber (rarely found in dense forest). Eat seeds and fruits that are found near rosehips, blackberries and other soft fruit.
This mouse is capable of digging holes up to 1.20 m; jumped 3 drops m; climbing 90; jump up to 90 cm in length and up to 3 m; anything up to 1000 m and is able to solve almost any material.
Elsewhere in the country there are other mice carrying different strains of tension “Andes”, which is typical of the Andean region; strain “Lechigüana” and strains tentatively called “Pergamino”.
This shows that in our country the chance of infection is low, and the global parameters (Dra. Delia Enría, director of the Institute Miaztegui Pergamino, La Nacion 11/21/96).
the most exposed populations or labile contract hantavirus, according to Steve Simpson, specialist hantavirus University of New Mexico, that individuals of both sexes, aged between 11 and 69 years, and the average will be between 30 and 40 year.
rodent life without being infected with the virus, as we say, and eliminated in urine, feces and saliva. People get sick taking contact with rodent feces through the mouth, nose, eyes or wounds. But transmission occurs primarily through aerosílica (aerosol dust particles suspended) when humans inhale the vapors released from the dirt of the mouse, in which the virus is present. The spray can of solid waste or water microdroplets in the case of wet grass.
transmission can also occur through a rat bite, or organic products contaminated mice into contact with wounds on the skin of a person, but these forms are rare.
transmission through aerosílica, which is most likely, given in the room recently to rodents.
It is not possible to spread this way in the open and exposed to the wind. There are also cases of infection consignment of people dedicated to cleaning mice infected area. This virus does not last too long in contact with the environment.
should be avoided, however, enclosed places where mice may, as an abandoned hut, temporary shelters, and similar leñeras closed, in which the virus can remain alive from hours to days. Instead, the virus is very sensitive to ultraviolet light, so that, when you are outdoors and exposed to sunlight, die very quickly. “Our experience -manifestaron Brian Hjelle and Steve Simpons American specialists who come to the country to study the outbreak Hantavirus- say that in many cases we have documented, outbreaks occur in people shaking rugs or sweeping and I kick up dust in places where there was dirt and not ventilated (Diario Clarin morning, the largest circulation in Argentina-26/11/96).
How not spread?
As we said, the virus survives a short time outside the body of the mouse, the contact with the environment, except in a closed, moist places, where you can live anywhere from hours to days. Easy fight with bleach or chlorinated water.
not spread person-to-person (at least there were no reports of infection by this route). Virus experts dismiss it straight away, although there are some assumptions to the contrary. According to the researchers, the fact that the pain associated with each other because one does not existto spread to the other, but because, sharing the residence or transit, are in contact with the product rodents. They argue that this is reinforced by the fact that the incubation period of the virus, which is long enough, the infected had contact with many people who are not infected. We studied 106,000 cases of people who work in Korea with hantavirus syndrome patients, touching blood and secretions, and did not have positive serology. Nothing in the world, there are cases of transmission from person to person.
Also do not spread through the consumption of fruits and vegetables, or through interest.
Vaccination and Treatment
There are so far. The low number of cases hindered the development of vaccines and create a research laboratory unattractive. In the US There are drugs that reduce the likelihood of death of the infected. These drugs, called Ribavirin, has the disadvantage of the price, because each dose costs about $ 500
Some of the causes that may improve this plague
A state of emergency is always associated with the evolution of rodents as a result of changes in their habitat, prefers to increase the population of the species. On the other hand, men increasingly invaded the area, and this leads to greater contact with the transmitter agent.
Among the causes that may have increased the current outbreak, experts do not doubt wildfires last season, because of the trees were burnt area where grass grows formed. On the one hand, it attracts rodents, and on the other hand, the man agreed to places previously visited. There is a potential risk area is formed.
may also be affected by drought and last winter, the poor in the snow, which had a lower mortality rate in colilargos and modified normal hibernation.
As far as the year (to 21/11/96) there have been 29 cases of hantavirus nationwide, of which 18 occurred in the Health Area IV, which involves El Bolson, Lago Puelo and Bariloche. 18’s, 10 died.
Patients in Bariloche is limited to four cases: a teacher Daniel Ruiz, his wife Silvina Ruiz, a young journalist and Alberto Moreiras Isabel Escobar 32, in addition to her job as a telephone operator at the clinic in Bariloche, perform the task of weeding. Fourth died.
Health Hospitals in Area IV, or Caught in Her:
The number of cases in Bariloche: Four
We’re talking about one case per 15,500 population. No tourist infected.
Vigilance in Activity Camp, Hiking and Trekking
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Reports Mountain Camps
No, from what I observed, the specific reason that makes the activity campamentismo risky activity, as far as precautions are taken shown above. It should be remembered that the mountain path deviates from a bush which is the main food source of this mouse. On the other hand, in places where open and exposed to the wind, the virus does not last too long in the excretion of a mouse, and therefore the strength of the same pollution is negligible. Aerosolic no inhalation hazard in the open and exposed to the wind. On the other hand it must be remembered that:
For this reason, it is recommended: mountain camp resume normal activities, taking, however, preventive action is recommended