hantavirus outbreak california

  • 18 min read
  • Feb 21, 2020

McKinley County woman dies of Hantavirus
McKinley County woman dies of Hantavirus

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on December 10 began destroying 91 tents in the cabin, rural campsite canvas 408 jammed into the side of the cabin pine and cedar swamps near the sloping shoulder of Half Dome. This is where the hantavirus outbreak began last summer, infecting at least 10 people and killed three.

But on Sunday, June 10, 2012, the camp looked beautiful. The weekend was held all the promise of early summer. The Curry Village outdoor swimming pool. The smell of hot dogs and nachos curled from the snack bar. sun bouncing off the face of Glacier Point. Children in the “Go Climb Rock” T-shirt screaming and chasing each other on a bicycle.

Some time that day, a woman 49 years of the Los Angeles area to arrive in front of Curry Village, a plain wooden office floors are often noisy with the sound of the staff checking guests in and out. The clerk handed over the keys to one of the 91 “signature tent cabins” which opened three years ago-the “new 900” as they are collectively known. In contrast to the older cabins, in favor of single-ply vinyl-coated canvas, signature cabins boast a double wall construction plywood and propane heaters, making them warmer and quieter than older units.

Off he went, this Southern California woman, to enjoy his Yosemite vacation. We’ll call him Visitors One.

About the same time, another guest checked into Curry Village. He was a man of 36 years of Alameda County, California, including Berkeley, Oakland and East Bay area. He was given the key to someone’s cabin close to visitors. She drops things and go about his business. We’ll call him Visitors Two.

We do not know exactly how visitors spend their One and Two of the four days in the park. medical confidentiality laws prohibit public health officials from releasing their names, and they and their families have chosen to keep their personal stories. Maybe they climb to the top of Half Dome or enjoy the giant sequoias of Mariposa Grove. By the following Wednesday, June 13, both visitors have checked them Curry Village tent cabins and leaving the park.

Around Yosemite summer take place secretly. Search and rescue teams to go out on small events: ankle fracture in the Panorama Trail, a pedestrian falls on the Half Dome cables. Rangers kept a wary eye on the Cascade Fire, lightning-sparked fire burning desert through a red spruce forest.

Then, in late June, Visitor One fell ill. She may feel like she has the flu: chills, muscle aches, fever, headache, dizziness, fatigue. flu disappear after a few days. It is not. We know that, back home, he went to see a doctor. When presented with symptoms of someone visitor, most doctors will be laid off as the flu or, worse, a low rate of pneumonia. doctors do not. They talk about what might be picked up and where. He mentioned his Yosemite trip. Doctors took the unusual step of calling Charles Mosher, a public health officer for Mariposa County, which includes Yosemite, and asked if there were cases of hantavirus known in the area. “Based on the history and symptoms, [hantavirus] is a definite possibility,” Mosher recalled, so he and Visitors One doctor agreed that starting treatment for the virus while waiting for laboratory confirmation is a wise way to go.

It was, considering the circumstances, about the worst thing one could hear the visitor.

Hantavirus bit strange animal zoonoses. Zoonosis is the movement of pathogens from animals to humans. David Quammen describes it in his latest book ,, as “a word from the future, is intended for heavy use in the 21st Century.” Some of the most disturbing virus emerged in the last 30 years have zoonotic: Ebola, Hendra virus, HIV, SARS, West Nile. Even when we remove more species, humans who come into close contact with other animals and invite them into our world virus, into our blood.

Hantavirus hit the American radar in 1993. That spring, a healthy young man and his fiancee Navajo died suddenly in the Four Corners area, where the borders of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah meet. Both suffered acute respiratory failure, which means that they can not breathe. Indian Health Service doctor, it would be a record of death, was found five young children the same healthy will all die in the same conditions. Over the next few weeks, more patients with the same symptoms appear. Because many victims Navajo reservation or come from the region, the media was initially dubbed Navajo flu.

By Mark Smolinski, an epidemiologist who studies a pandemic to appear, a San Francisco non-profit that was founded by former eBay executive Jeff Skoll, symptoms including the “simple cold, fever, difficulty breathing-then suddenly and straight downhill course.” Back in 1993, Smolinski work on the mystery of Four Corners as a young public health officials. He and his colleagues, he remembered, find board and listed “every known possible diseases, toxins, chemicals, or occupational exposure.”

Finally, a virologist at (CDC), in collaboration with tissue samples from victims, found a genetic relationship to hantaviruses, European family of previously unknown virus in North America. European viruses cause kidney failure, but the Four Corners victims died of lung failure. What emerges in the Southwestern spring is a new strain of hantavirus is endemic to North America. Scientists called the Sin Nombre strain, Spain for the nameless. Thirty percent of deer mice trapped in the Four Corners area were found to be carrying Sin Nombre strain.

Mice infected with hantavirus shed live virus in their urine, feces, and saliva. It takes the right combination of time, drying, and aerosolization for humans to become infected. A urinate or defecate rats, dirt dries to dust particles, then the particles swept up into the air. human infections most often occur in confined spaces such as homes, cabins, or storage areas, but it must take place within 48 hours of mouse shedding virus-researchers have, so far, hantavirus seen last for two days outside the host.

When people breathe in the virus, it can take up to five weeks to incubate. Then the victim down with flu-like symptoms that may linger for days. The symptoms may actually diminish for a bit. Then, suddenly, things took deteriorated. Much worse.

“It feels like the flu for about a week, and then one night I was horribly sick,” said Ethan Lindsey, a producer of public radio 34 years, contracted hantavirus during a visit to Montana from his home in, in 2009. a month later, he ran the Fourth of July 5K. Feels great. Four days after that, he came down with what felt like the flu. “I’m drained, bone tired, cough,” he said. He went to the doctor, who could not figure it out. That’s not the swine flu, it may be just a mild case of pneumonia. Lindsey home and rest, but continued to decline. “I feel terrible pain,” he said. “Around midnight, my fiance drove me to the hospital,” St. Charles Medical Center in Bend. “I almost fainted on the way there.”

turn of flu respiratory failure occurs so quickly that one hantavirus survivor groups on Facebook suggest people who suspect they have been infected to appoint a friend to monitor them around the clock. If things go south, the victim might be too sick to reach hospitals only.

If you reach the point of disease-and it is not clear what percentage of those infected with hantavirus actually doing it badly. Breathing begins to fail. Some victims describe feeling a tightening band around their chest or being smothered with a pillow. “They put me on oxygen because it becomes difficult to breathe,” said Lindsey. “I remember the doctor saying, ‘Look, your oxygen saturation at 60 percent and dropping fast. Once it hits 40 percent, the main organ will fail and you will die. We think we need to put you into a medically induced coma. ‘ “

They put down a nine-day Lindsey. Doctors connected him to high-frequency oscillatory ventilator as his lungs filled with fluid. At one point the fever ran so high that the nurse put the unconscious body in an ice bath.

Lindsey doctors still do not know the hantavirus. “It’s very rare, why they would test me for that, right?” he says. Hantavirus test takes four to seven days. It’s a very nuanced and difficult to interpret. There are a lot of false positives.

Even if they know, no much more could be done. There is no known cure. The best that doctors can do is to connect the patient to the ventilator and allow the body to fight the virus itself. The fortunate, like Lindsey, recovered. But many are not lucky.

“We have a 75 percent mortality rate in cases of Four Corners,” said Smolinski. “We want to know: Is it just pop up, or did something change? And there some ecological pressure caused it to evolve to the point where we begin to recognize it? “

There are two answers. An autopsy study in Southwest indicate that there have been fatal cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, or HPS (as diseases associated with Sin Nombre strain was then called), dating back to the 1950s. At that time, doctors have attributed the death to respiratory disorders, the cause is unknown. In fact, CDC researchers found that the traditional Navajo medicine recognized disease-related incident and is similar to a mouse.

Today, researchers believe that hantavirus coevolved with North American rodents. Deer mouse is the main host virus’, although variation appears on white-footed mice, cotton rats, and mice rice as well. Rats are considered reservoirs, which means that they harbor the virus without being affected by it.

For Smolinski’s second question, there is ecological pressure. Winter unusually wet causes pinon pine nut harvest in the spring region. Flush with food, the rat population exploded. the virus does not mutate. There are just more rats about, which means more opportunities for people to come in contact with the virus.

An outbreak in 1993 eventually led to 27 the death rate of 56 percent. It was very high. Ebola virus, scary music charts, has a mortality rate of 30 to 90 percent. But there is one good news: Hantavirus not send person-to-person. It moved from the mouse to humans, but humans seem clogged vessel. infected patients are not contagious.

hanta scare subsided after 1993. But the virus does not go away. About 30 people came down with hantavirus in the US each year. The mortality rate remains of high: 37 percent of patients diagnosed with hantavirus death. It appears in all places, but particularly in the West. New Mexico: 91 cases since 1993. Colorado: 78. Montana: 35. California. 48

In most cases, the virus turns carrying deer mice. Which is a challenge. You can not remove the disease by killing all the deer mice. (The deer, Peromyscus maniculatus, preferring rural fields, forests, and other buildings, it has nothing to do with the deer, though the names mice you trap in your basement is probably the house mouse, Mus musculus, which is unknown. Operator .) for North American carnivore, deer mice as natural grain. They are a staple food for birds, cats, reptiles, and canines. They grew like plants during the spring and summer, and a certain percentage of them grow the hanta. one

Visitors lucky. His body fought off the virus, and he recovered. Tests eventually confirmed that it was, as Charles Mosher suspected, hantavirus.

At this point in mid-July there was no reason for alarm in the park. Aside from the 1993 original outbreak, medical experts believe hantavirus almost never occur in clusters. Although he visited Yosemite, Guest One can catch it anywhere on his visit to the Eastern Sierra.

“When we saw that the first case, we consider it isolated-like all of it, to the point that,” said Danielle Buttke, a veterinary epidemiologist who worked for. wildlife diseases are the specialties of this Buttke. He was associated with relapse in tick-borne fever, beaver rabies in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, and the West Nile virus in mosquitoes at Fire Island National Seashore.

Buttke got a call about a visitor One of the July. CDPH officials tell a hantavirus cases have been reported in residents of California who have visited Yosemite in June. Health officials can not be sure that he contracted in Yosemite.

Then Visitors Two down with the flu. He was not so lucky. Men Alameda County 36-year-checked himself into the hospital on July 30. On July 31, he was already dead.

A quick check revealed that visitor records lodging one and two visitors have one thing in common :. either stay in a tent cabin signatures, the new 900s

alarm bells ringing. Buttke met state public health teams, including the Mariposa County public health officer Charles Mosher, in Curry Village. their weapon of choice. pencil

“As we go through the shelter, we try to identify gaps quarter inch or larger,” said Buttke. It all mice need to squeeze in a cabin. “If you can stick a pencil through the gap, it needs to be addressed.”

During their inspection, the team discovered something interesting. “When you pull back that canvas, you can see there are rats living in the empty space between the walls,” said Buttke. “They nest in isolation.”

Suddenly, the picture becomes clearer. One big mystery why this outbreak was not a victim hanta come only from new 900s and not older cabin tent? -Menyadari possible solutions.

Hantavirus not live long like anthrax bacteria, which can survive in a dormant spores for decades. “Usually it lasts only a few days,” said Charles Chiu, an infectious disease doctor at the University of California at San Francisco. Chiu, one of the nation’s leading virus researcher, head of UCSF’s. He spent part of the summer analyzing Yosemite hantavirus strain. (It turned out very similar but not identical to the Sin Nombre strain.)

For a human to be infected by such a virus is short, you need to tick ongoing.

in Curry Village, deer mice might sometimes rushes on the floor of the older soft-sided tent. But in the 900 hard-sided they stay on the wall, keep shedding the virus.

Then there is the food. If you walk around Curry Village, you could not swing a cat without hitting “Mrs. Curry Camp Etiquette,” the signs of the list of camp rules. Yosemite has a famous bear problems, and the food is strictly prohibited in the cabin canvas, so that hungry bears will not rip through the walls. Guests storing food in bear-proof boxes outdoors instead.

But the new 900s have different rules. “Hard-sided cabins can store food in the cabin,” proclaimed etiquette. “Keep food out of sight, and the doors and windows locked.”

How to attract rats: 1) Offer a comfortable nest; 2) Providing food.

“We found evidence of food in the cabin, evidence of rodents eat food dropped on the floor,” said Buttke.

rat population is very dynamic. Conception to childbirth: 21 days. They can reproduce six weeks after birth. Given the nesting ground safe and abundant food supply, the rat population to explode. Here’s where things really get interesting. When hanta infected men started fighting for territory, he was biting and scratching its competitors, which spread the virus mouse mouse. On the field and forest, predators such as foxes, coyotes and owls mouse curb impulse for territorial expansion. Leave the nest to fight, and you risk getting eaten. In predator-free Curry Village, not so much. So while 14 percent of the population may carry hanta California mice, the infection rate in the double-walled cabins can be much higher.

In early August, the park closes down 91 signature tent cabin. Cleaning crew giving each cabin sanitation in the net. maintenance workers and tightened the gap sealed vinyl-coated canvas cover double-layered wall. They forge a fresh one-by-fours around the base of each of the new 900s. No way rats each squeeze through it. When the CDPH officials inspected and cleaned fortified cabin, the park reopened to visitors 900 series.

But with a long incubation period, people continue to get sick.

On August 12, visitors of three died. He was a 45-year man from Pennsylvania, and we do not know much about him except for the fact that he lived in a cabin tent signature before the end of July.

“In the third case, we realize this is very unusual,” said Buttke. “There is something that is definitely not true.”

On August 16, Yosemite and CDPH officials openly admit hantavirus cases for the first time. The news exploded. Setting a killer virus in the famous global settings such as Yosemite and you’ve got a story that, well, go viral.

It was not all bad. Curry Village rash Yosemite trip cancellation and numbers dipped, but park officials want to remind the 1,700 guests who had overnighted in the 900s that summer to realize the situation. If they find themselves down with the flu, Park Service advises them to get tested for hantavirus.A number of guests appears positive early summer.

One of the aspects that most perplexing of an outbreak of hanta Park, in retrospect, is the period between the reopening of 900 cleared in early August and public recognition of the outbreak on August 16. During that window, visitors checked into a signature tent cabin without information on the outbreak. Al and Pamela Oligino of Laguna Beach, California, to meet their son’s family in Yosemite on August 13 They stayed three nights in a cabin 966 and 954. “One day, three people looked official came and started checking the empty cabin next to us,” said Oligino. “We found a few days later through the press that there had been an outbreak of hantavirus, which is very worrying. They know the previous week, but they did not tell us we were at risk. ” At one point, Pamela Oligino said Curry Village staff members loaned him a broom to sweep out their cabins. Sweeps can send the virus into the air and potentially into the lungs. “Obviously, one of the employees missed a training session,” he said.

Tom Medema, chief of interpretation Yosemite, park officials said the state inspector -Health public rely for guidance on closures, openings, and public signs. “We are not experts in the disease of their way,” he said. There is a belief that extra precautions be taken to clean the cabin mice, along with doubling the cleanup effort, has reduced the risk of infection to almost zero. And, in fact, no one living in the new 900s after the end of July contracted the virus.

Finally, although the mice find their way back. The inspectors found Al Oligino realizing continue to examine the cabin signs of rodents. In late August, they found them. Check and mate. On August 28, the Yosemite officials permanently shut down all 91 signature tent cabin. On December 10, park maintenance crews began removing the entire double wall 900 series. They will be replaced by the tent cabins were built in the style of a traditional single-wall. “Our hope is that they will be online before next summer,” said Medema.

The irony is that the 900s were opened in 2009 to keep visitors out of danger. In October 2008, part of a stone cleaved away from the 3,200-foot granite walls of Glacier Point. A load equal to about 500 dump trucks rumbling down and crushed the empty cabin. In response, park officials condemned more than 200 cabins in the relegation zone Glacier Point. 900 new ride, away from falling rocks. Nobody, he thinks, should die because they are assigned a cabin lucky.

Looking back on it, Yosemite hantavirus outbreak appears to be a case study in modern virus hunting and psychological diseases. What gives the story legs is a combination of known and unknown. The iconic brand name meets the mysterious dangers

The effect of the story is something to see. I visited Yosemite in mid-September, and I can tell you I have to tamp down anxiety myself to do it. I considered bringing my kids along to see El Capitan but ultimately decided against it. It makes no sense may expose them. On the way to Yosemite, I stop at Home Depot and buy a respirator mask. Just in case.

When I arrived at Curry Village on a sunny autumn day, I counted only a handful of ride. At the bike rental stands, I tested fat-tire cruiser and asked the counter guy if the business has slowed. He glanced unrented warehouse full of two-wheeled vehicles. “Not by choice, unfortunately,” he said. “Gotta love the media.”

I walked around for a while, maskless. The place was quiet. The wind moves through the trees. I poked my head inside one of the 500 soft-side. In the area of ​​900, I see that the park employee who lives in a tent cabin next to the signature of the famous cabin, separated only by a wooden fence. I was tossing. Why they will be safe when the cabin 20 feet too risky to go in? I can not decide whether I was stupid to pierce my nose into space a potential virus or excessive moody.

I’m not the only one with doubts. Susan Smartt is the CEO, who runs the outdoor education program in the West. Each year more than 30,000 school children and teachers enjoy NatureBridge programs in Yosemite, Olympic National Park Washington, California Channel Islands, and the Santa Monica Mountains.

hantavirus outbreak Smartt forced to think hard about the risks. NatureBridge students often stayed in the signature tent cabins during the school year. Shortly after the outbreak was announced, NatureBridge stop his Yosemite program. “The health and welfare of our students must come first,” said Smartt. “Our program came in second or we would not have the program.”

Smartt is in a tough spot, though. NatureBridge there is to connect kids with the great outdoors, especially urban children with little experience in nature. They come from inner cities of Oakland and San Francisco, and from as far away as Texas and Japan. “Some had never seen snow,” he said. Children-and their parents-may have felt trepidation about heading into the woods. Add a killer virus into the mix and you’ve got a hard sell.

Smartt kept in close contact with officials Yosemite. When they feel that the outbreak had been contained, Smartt started thinking about bringing the kids back-but not Curry Village. He worked with Delaware North, the park lodging concessionaires, to find room in the Cedar Lodge and Wawona Hotel. “I was on the phone this week to unite our reservations,” he said in early October.

The good news: NatureBridge resumed operation on October 14. The bad news: 62 school groups have canceled their visit Yosemite. “There are some schools in which the school board said: We can not do it this year. It just feels too risky, “said Smartt.

It was embarrassing. For some children, this may have been the only chance they were to experience the outdoors. And what an experience! Yosemite. It’s like being introduced to the church in the Sistine Chapel. But I can not blame them school board. After all, I kept myself in the children’s home.

I left upvalley Curry Village and walk towards El Capitan. Strange psychology work my brain diseases. three panic Yosemite hantavirus death of many people. However, during the same summer, more than 5,000 cases of West Nile virus broke out in the United States. It was the worst outbreak of West Nile nation ever; at the end of November, 247 people will die. Dallas Mayor authorized aerial spraying of insecticides. But most people do not cancel vacation plans.

Hanta consistently plague seldom-30 isolated cases a year. Lyme disease, after rising to nearly 30,000 cases per year in 2009, has held steady at 22,000 to 24,000 cases during the last few years, most of them in the northeast, mid-Atlantic, and upper Great Lakes region. West Nile, on the contrary, have gone the tears. Since the first appearance in New York 13 years ago (62 cases), it is gone nationwide. The CDC reported that this year 5245 cases-called epidemic-spread across 48 countries. Only Alaska and Hawaii are immune.

While we are talking about relative risk, consider this: Last summer the Merced River, which runs through Yosemite Valley, claiming four victims drowned. All four drowned in climbing distance of Curry Village. Most people have never heard of those fatalities.

Mark Schaller, a professor of psychology at the University of British Columbia, has studied human psychological response to the disease. I asked him about a very different reaction to hantavirus, West Nile, and the river of death. “The emotion aroused by the threat perception is not always correlated with a rational assessment of risk,” he said. “We often respond to the more ancient part of our brain, and historically, infectious diseases have become a major threat.”

“Think of charging bears or the roaring river,” he said. “They are a big physical threat that could kill us or our children. But I could see a bear, I can hit with a stick, I could avoid the threat. Same with the river. Sure, I could have drowned, but I can see the river damn! “

The power of psychological illness, by contrast, lies in part in its invisibility. “This virus can hide anywhere,” said Schaller. “Ordinary sensory apparatus-eyes, ears, nose we-can not detect them. I can not blow the germs in the nose and made him flee. Therefore, diseases particularly strange. “

I think it also has to do with the calculus of each disease. Mosquitoes pick up West Nile from birds and transfer to humans. With an annual average of 3,500 national case, it is unusual but not rare. And 80 percent of people infected with West Nile have no symptoms at all. Twenty percent will develop flu-like symptoms. Less than one percent will suffer a life-threatening encephalitis or meningitis-and those people are more likely to beelderly, immune compromised, or the very young. Thus, West Nile. Liar is more prominent than the hantavirus, but exponentially more survivable

Hanta, on the other hand, is extremely rare. In 2012 there were about one case for every 175 hantavirus cases of West Nile in the US But somehow rarely does not reduce the scariness. In fact, not vice versa. Flu has killed many more people than the Ebola virus. And yet.

The death rate did not help matters. Thirty-seven percent are eye-opening. the mind can dismiss West Nile victims as weak and elderly. Not going to happen to me. Hanta, from the first case, has trimmed the young and healthy.

Finally, there is a feeling that Hanta did not play fair. It is a virus waging asymmetric warfare. By infecting victims in Yosemite tent cabin, was attacked in one of the most sacred secular America. Our park is the home of virtue; their chapel tent cabins health and strength. A haunted house is one thing. A church fear haunting us half to death.

On the way to El Cap I stopped in Camp Four, hanging legendary climbers. September is the traditional start of the climbing season in the valley. Hantavirus apparently did not scare any of them away. “Camp 4 is FULL,” says the sign at the ranger station.

I spoke with three young men who had just come out of a rock. Russell Facente, Justin Loyka, and J.D. Merritt planned to be in Yosemite for most of September. They talk about hanta and about caring with tents and food. But the virus does not seem to phase them.

“I am from the Southwest,” Facente told me. “So I’m pretty familiar with the hantavirus. I understand that around. But you take precautions. Keep an eye out for rat droppings. “

Intimacy. In case this does not breed contempt. This gave rise to quiet. This gave rise to rationality.

I continue to foot El Capitan and I touched the granite and regret my children were not there. The next time they will.

Contributing Editor Bruce Barcott is the author.

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