hantavirus southwestern united states

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Hantavirus Facts and Prevention Tips – Grainger Industrial Supply
Hantavirus Facts and Prevention Tips – Grainger Industrial Supply

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SUGGESTED CITATION .:
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Hantavirus Infections –

The southwest United States. Interim Recommendations for Risk
Subtraction. (. No RR-11); MMWR 1993 42: {} inclusive page numbers.

CIO Responsible for this publication:
National Center for Infectious Diseases

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases
Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases
Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
National Center for Environmental Health

Summary

This report provides interim recommendations for prevention
Hantavirus infection control related to rodents

The southwest United States. It is based on the principles of rats and

infection control and provides specific recommendations for
reduce rodent shelter and food resources in and around the house,
recommendation to eliminate the rats in the house and
preventing them from entering the house, precautions to prevent
hantavirus infection while mice contaminated areas being
cleaned, preventive measures for people who have a job
exposure to wild-type mice, and precautions for campers and hikers. illness

INTRODUCTION

recently recognized related hantavirus between
residents of the southwest United States (1-4) and
reservoir identification rats exposed to the virus in
area ensures recommendation to minimize the risk of exposure
mice for both residents and visitors. While the information is being

collected about the causes and epidemiology of the virus,
interim recommendations can be made on the basis of knowledge
approximately associated hantaviruses. This recommendation is based on the
the current understanding of the epidemiology of the features of hantavirus
infection in the Southwest; they will be evaluated periodically
and modified as more information becomes available.

Rodents are the main reservoir hosts are recognized
hantaviruses. Each hantavirus rodent appears to have preferential
host, but other small mammals can be infected as well (5.6).
The available data strongly suggest that the deer (Peromyscus
maniculatus) is the main reservoir of the newly recognized
hantavirus in the southwestern United States (1). serological
evidence of infection has also been found in mice Pion (P. truei)

brush mice (P. boylii), and squirrels West (tamias spp.). P.
maniculatus very adaptable and are found in different habitats,

including human settlements in rural and semirural, but
generally in urban centers.

Hantaviruses not cause obvious disease in their reservoirs
hosts (7). infected mice shed virus in saliva, urine, and feces
for weeks, but the duration and the period of maximum infectivity
Unknown (8-11). The presence of infectious virus shows
in the saliva of infected rodents and this marked sensitivity
hantaviruses following animals for inoculation showed bite that
may be an important mode of transmission among rats (7).

Human infection can occur when infectious saliva or feces

inhaled as aerosols are generated directly from animals. person
visited the laboratory where the infected mice had accommodated
infected after only a few minutes of exposure to animal holding
area (12). Transmission can also occur when the material is dried
contaminated by rodent droppings disturbed, immediately introduced
into the damaged skin, is introduced into the conjunctiva, or, perhaps,
ingested in contaminated food or water. People also become
infected after being bitten by rodents (13,14).

Arthropod vectors not known to have a role in
hantaviruses transmission (7,12). Person-to-person transmission
not associated with any one of the previously identified
hantaviruses (9) or with a recent outbreak in the Southwest. Cat

and dogs are not known reservoir hosts hantaviruses in

United States of America. However, domestic animals can carry infected
mice into contact with humans.

Known human hantavirus infections occur mainly in
adults and are associated with housekeeping, work, or relax
activities that bring people into contact with infected rodents,
usually in a rural setting. Seasonal patterns of different events,

depending on the virus, host species of rodents, and the pattern
human behavior (5.7).Cases have been epidemiologically linked
in the following circumstances:

planting or harvesting field crops;

occupy previously vacant cabins or other dwellings;

cleaning barns and other outbuildings;

disrupt the mice-infested areas while hiking or camping;

inhabit a residence with indoor rodent population;

reside in or visit areas where the rodent population
has shown an increase in density (15-17).

Hantaviruses has a lipid envelope were susceptible to most

disinfectant (eg, dilute hypochlorite solutions, detergents,
ethyl alcohol {70%}, or at least a general purpose household
disinfectant) (18). How long does the virus survive after being
warehouse in an uncertain environment.

Reservoir host of hantavirus that in southwest
The United States also acted as host for the bacterium Yersinia pestis,
etiologic agent of plague. Although fleas and other
ectoparasites unknown role in hantavirus
epidemiology, rodent fleas transmit plague. control mice
without concurrent flea control can increase the risk of human
outbreaks as rodent infestation seek alternative food sources.

Eradication of hantaviruses reservoir hosts are not
feasible nor desirable. The best approach currently available to
disease control and prevention is the reduction of risk through
environmental hygiene practices that prevent mice from colonization
home and work environments.

GENERAL PREVENTION OF HOUSEHOLD IN THE REGION

Although the epidemiological studies are being conducted to identify

certain behaviors that can increase the risk for hantavirus
Infection in humans in the United States, rodent control and
around the house will continue to be a primary prevention strategy

(Box 1). CDC has issued recommendations for
rodent-proofing
residence urban and suburban and reduce the rodent population
through
habitat modification and sanitation (19.20).

Eliminate Rodents Rodent REDUCE THE HOUSE AND ACCESS
HOME

Rodent infestation can be determined by direct observation of
animal or inferred from the presence of impurities in the closet or
cabinets or on the floor or on evidence that mice had
gnawed food. If the rat infestation is detected in the home
or other buildings, rat abatement measures must be completed (Box

2). The directions on the special section
vigilance
must be followed if evidence of heavy infestation of mice (for example,
many piles of dirt or dead animal) is present or if
The structure is associated with a confirmed case of hantavirus
disease.

CLEAN-UP AREAS rat-CONTAMINATED

Areas with evidence of rodent activity (eg, dead rats,
rodent droppings) should be cleaned thoroughly to reduce
the possibility of exposure to hantavirus infected material. Clean
the procedure must be done in a way that limits the potential for
aerosolization of dirt or dust from all potential
contaminated surfaces and household goods (Box 3).

SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS FOR HOME PEOPLE WITH CONFIRMED hantavirus
INFECTION OR BUILDING WITH HEAVY Rodent infestation

Special precautions indicated in the affected areas to
cleaning the house or building with a severe rat infestation
(Box 4). People who do these activities should be
contact the responsible local, state, or national public health
tutoring agency. These precautions may also apply to empty
residence that has attracted the rodents while empty
and for dwellings and other structures that had been occupied by
people with confirmed hantavirus infection. Good worker

specifically hired to clean up or requested to do so as
part of their work activities should receive a thorough orientation

from health agencies responsible about hantavirus transmission
and must be trained to perform the required activities safely.

PREVENTION FOR WORKERS IN THE REGION ARE REGULARLY exposed

By rodent

People who frequently handle or exposed to rodents (eg,

mammalogists, pest control workers) in the affected areas
may be at higher risk for hantavirus infection than the general
because of their frequency public exposure. Therefore, improved
the precautions necessary to protect them against hantavirus
infection (Box 5).

PREVENTION FOR ANOTHER WORKING GROUPS THAT HAVE THE POTENTIAL Rodent

CONTACT

Information that is currently available is not enough to allow
General recommendations regarding risk or preventive measures for the
in the affected areas who work in jobs with unpredictable or

incidental contact with rodents or their residence. Example from
the work include telephone installers, maintenance workers,

plumbers, electricians and construction workers certain. worker
in this work may have to enter various buildings, crawl spaces, or

Other sites that may be rat infested. these recommendations
circumstances must be made on a case by case basis after
particular work environment has been assessed and state or local
the health department has been consulted.

Prevention for campers and hikers in the area of ​​disaster

There is no evidence to suggest that a trip to the affected
area should be limited. Most of the usual tourist activities pose
little or no risk that travelers will be exposed to rodents or
their feces. However, people involved in outdoor activities such as
as camping or hiking should take precautions to reduce
the possibility of their exposure to potentially infectious material
(Box 6).

Conclusion

Control and Prevention recommendations of this report
the general steps to minimize the possibility of human
exposure to hantavirus-infected mice in the regions
southwestern United States are affected by the outbreak
hantavirus-related respiratory diseases. Lots
recommendation may not be applicable or necessary in affected
local. The impact and utility of recommendation will be
rated as they are implemented and will continue to review
by CDC and state and local health agencies are involved as
additional epidemiologic and laboratory data related to
outbreak becomes available. If necessary, these recommendations may
supplemented or amended in the future.

CDC. Outbreaks of acute disease – Western United States,
1993. MMWR 1993; 42; 421-4.

CDC. Update: an outbreak of hantavirus infection – West
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CDC. Update: an outbreak of hantavirus infection – West
United States, 1993. MMWR 1993; 42: 495-6.

CDC. Update: hantavirus infection – the United States. MMWR
1993; 42: 517-9.

LeDuc JW. Epidemiology Hantaan and related viruses. Lab Anim

Sci 1987; 37: 413-8.

Childs JE, Glass GE, Korch GW, et al. ecology and
epizootiology hantaviral infection in small mammals
Public
Baltimore: a review and synthesis. Soc bull Vector Ecol
1988; 13: 113-22.

KT McKee Jr., LeDuc JW, CJ Peters. Hantaviruses. In: Belshe RB,
ed. Textbook of human virology, 2nd ed. St Louis: Mosby Year
Book,
1991: 615-32.

Bogdanova SB, Gavrilovskaya IN, Boyko VA, et al. Persistent
infections caused by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in
red
mice (Clethrionomys glareolus), the natural host of the virus.
Mikrobiol Zh 1987; 49: 99-106.

Lee HW, France GR, Lee PW, et al. Observations on the nature and
Infection of laboratory mice with the etiologic agent of
Korea
dengue fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1981; 30: 477-82.

Lee HW, Lee PW, Baek LJ, et al. Intraspecific transmission
Hantaan virus, the etiologic agent of Korean hemorrhagic fever, in
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agrarius Apodemus mice. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1981; 30: 1106-1112.

Yanagihara R, Amyx HC, DC Gajdusek. Experimental infection with

Puumala virus, the etiologic agent of nephropathia epidemica,
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bank mice (Clethrionomys glareolus). J Virol 1985; 55: 34-8.

Tsai TF. hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: mode
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Dournon E, Moriniere B, Matheron S, et al. dengue fever
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Kawamata J, Yamanouchi T, Dohmae K, et al. control
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Gligic A, Obradovic M, Stojanovic R, et al. plague
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HN prince, Prince DL, RN prince. Principle of virus control
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Pratt HD, Brown RZ. biological factors in domestic rodents
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Page converted :. 09.19.98

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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Center for Disease Control and Prevention
1600 Clifton Rd, mailstop E-90, Atlanta, GA
30 333, U.S.A

This page was last reviewed 02/05/01

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