is there hantavirus in california

  • 7 min read
  • Feb 14, 2020

Hantavirus infection confirmed; mice can contaminate food | Food ...
Hantavirus infection confirmed; mice can contaminate food | Food …

We describe the case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in patients affected by Sin Nombre virus in coastal counties in California, USA, who has no previous record of human cases. environmental evaluation coupled with genotypic analysis of virus isolates from case-patients and local rodent trapped identify the location of possible exposure.

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), which is caused by infection with Sin Nombre virus (SNV), made nationally to be reported in the United States in 1995. Since then, 71 cases have been reported in residents of California (range 0 -8 cases / y) (). People are usually exposed to SNV through inhalation aerosol dirt (eg, saliva, urine, and feces) from infected rodents, typically deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) (), although other wild rodents, such as cactus mouse (P. eremicus), has involved as a reservoir in California (). SNV has been documented in deer mice across California (), but exposure to the majority of human cases have been in noncoastal, mountains (> 900 m), the rural areas of the country.

The disease onset occurs after 2-8 weeks incubation (); onset to 70% of cases of California have occurred during May to September. include serology laboratory confirmation (eg, ELISA, IgM, and IgG), reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) testing of serum or respiratory samples, or immunohistochemistry to identify viral antigens in tissue (). Sequencing RNA viruses (most often open reading frame glycoprotein or nucleoprotein) is used for the connection suspected hantavirus strains from humans and rodents (,). We report a case of HPS in patients affected by SNV in coastal counties in California, USA, who has no previous record of human cases.

adult patients (age 35-40 years) seeking treatment at an urgent care facility locally in April 2018 for 2-day history of fever (38.8 ° C), chills, muscle aches, nausea, dizziness, shortness of breath and cough. Originally diagnosed with a viral illness, the patient returned 2 days later with worsening symptoms, including neck stiffness and photophobia. the patient was referred to a local emergency department because of concerns about meningitis.

On admission, a computed tomography scan showed bilateral pulmonary consolidation perihilar air space, increased lung density (ground glass), and moderate bilateral pleural effusion. clinical laboratory values ​​showed thrombocytopenia (≈46,000 cells / mL [reference 150000-400000 cells / mL]), elevated creatinine (1.5 mg / dL [reference 0.6 to 1.3 mg / dL]), leukocytes increased (12,400 cells / mL [reference 3900 -11 700 cells / mL]), neutropenia (8.9% [reference 45% -70%]), and lymphopenia (17.3% [reference 18% -48%]). One day later, the patient was transferred to the hospital with a higher level of acute care, intubated and placed on artificial lungs.

Serum was collected 4 days after the onset of illness tested negative at the local public health laboratories for influenza A and B. In a commercial laboratory, the test results of urine antigen serum-negative for leptospirosis and legionella, antibody-negative to coccidioidomycosis, and PCR-negative for Yersinia enterocolitica but IgM and IgG positive for hantavirus. California Department of Public Health Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory tested additional serum samples were collected 7 days after the onset of the disease, confirming the positive serological results, and SNV RNA was detected using RT-PCR described previously (). The patient remains in an artificial lung for 10 days, was extubated on day 18, and was released 20 days after the onset of illness.

Life of case-patients and worked on a farm in ≈20 m altitude in Santa Cruz County, along the northern coast of California. Interviews with family initially suggested exposure to the rural work in San Mateo County, north of the residence of the farm, at ≈400 m above sea level, where both case-patients and family members work outside the home in a dusty environment, rodent-filled 18 days before onset of the disease. the family does not remember the exposure of rats on the farm except for case-patients cleared warehouse> 1 week before the onset of illness.

California Department of Health Vector-Borne Disease Section in collaboration with the vector county General -Control agencies to evaluate where the case-patient stay, agriculture and rural workplace for potential exposure to SNV. At the farm, access rats, dirt, and nesting materials are presentin some outer buildings and structures in and around the house. 105 Sherman traps set, 19 rats were arrested (18% trap success) of farms, including 18 deer mice and 1 western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis). Rodents anesthetized, blood collection techniques bleed through retro-orbital, and humane euthanasia. Five (28%) of rat and mouse deer harvest were serologically positive for SNV, including one deer from inside the warehouse that case-patients cleared and 1 in the basement of the house. Blood of 4 out of 5 mice and mouse deer harvest positive for SNV by RT-PCR

Location workplace rural San Mateo County can not be investigated directly .; However, trapping and habitat evaluation conducted in a public area near the workplace. Rodents captured in the trap 35 of 100 (35% trap success) included 15 mice parasites (P. californicus) and 20 pinon mouse (P. truei) but no deer mice. One Pinon mice tested serologically positive SNV, but no viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR.

Image

. Gn hantavirus glycoprotein phylogenetic tree sequences from isolates collected in California, USA, and the reference sequence. The hantavirus sequence of case-patients described in this study (gray box) is displayed in …

We perform phylogenetic analysis to compare isolates of case-patients to other California hantavirus sequence, including from agriculture where case-patients live and work. Because there is no rat PCR-positive were collected near the work area countryside, archived sequences of deer mice SNV-positive were collected in previous years (2014, 2016 and 2018) from two different sites in the same area where the rural labor (San Mateo County) included in our analysis. We find that the sequence of the glycoprotein SNV-patient cases genetically closest to hantavirus sequences recovered from the ranch case-patients (). The sequence of two sites in San Mateo County each form separate clades monophyletic cluster together, although the collection for several years, and is different from all the samples from Santa Cruz County. Thus, the exposure is likely to occur on the farm where the case-patients live and work. Although this type of exposure to open the outer buildings of poor ventilation and engage in activities that raise dust typical for hantavirus exposure, geographic locations in this coastal California county has not previously been involved in SNV exposure leads to HPS. Follow-up visits county officials vectorborne disease provides information to families in exclusion mice and other preventive measures to reduce the risk of subsequent exposure to SNV.

The prevalence of hantavirus in deer mice in the surrounding Santa Cruz district ranged from 0% to 12% during 1975 to 2017 (); However, cases of human HPS has not been previously documented from this area. Typically, cases of HPS associated with higher elevation (,). Points of rural labor is the first focus of this investigation because it’s exposure at higher altitudes and an initial interview with the family suggested exposure to rodents. In the end, however, the environmental investigation identified the most likely location of exposures that are agriculture-patient cases in Santa Cruz County. High abundance of deer mice reported by family, coupled with the presence of SNV in mice which were found near the ranch-patient cases, likely contributed to the risk of high exposure. Environmental investigation of this case highlights the importance of evaluating all possible sites of exposure to minimize the future risk for disease and death from HPS. Molecular analysis of the sequence of case-patients and mice are a valuable tool to identify possible local exposure.

a comprehensive epidemiological investigation, including molecular sequencing, prompted public health message on prevention of hantavirus to the public and the medical community in the area where hantavirus cases had not previously been identified. Evaluation stay-patient cases provide an opportunity for advice on reducing the risk of sustained exposure to family-patient cases. The findings of this environmental investigation might guide future public health interventions in California, including surveillance and public health messages.

Dr. Kjemtrup is a research scientist and epidemiologist with the California Department of Health Vector-Borne Disease Section General. He focuses on the surveillance and prevention rodentborne and tickborne diseases.

We thank Chris Conroy confirmation mammalian species, Vector Control Santa Cruz County mosquito Abatement / and San Mateo County Mosquito Vector District Control to support the environment, Greg Hacker on the map, Bryan Jackson for rodent necropsy, and Vicki Kramer for a review of the manuscript.

This work determined waived for human subjects protocol by California State Health Department and Planning. Animal handling protocol # 2014-18, approved by the California Department of Public Health, followed. Wildlife samples permission is not required for animals that are taken by the state public health officials, according to the California Fish and Game Code 4011 (6) (b).

DOI: 10.3201 / eid2510.190058

First Publication Date: 04/09/2019

Please use the form below to send a letter to the author or contact them at the following address:

Anne M. Kjemtrup, California Department of Public Health, Vector-Borne Disease Section, 1616 Capitol Ave, Mailstop 7307, PO Box 997 377, Sacramento, CA 95899-7377, USA

Comments submitted successfully, thank you for your response.

Highlight and copy the desired format.

Locations of USFS sites evaluated for hantavirus exposure risk ...
Locations of USFS sites evaluated for hantavirus exposure risk …

Figure 1 - Seroepidemiologic Studies of Hantavirus Infection Among ...
Figure 1 – Seroepidemiologic Studies of Hantavirus Infection Among …

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome In California – Symptoms Treatment ...
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome In California – Symptoms Treatment …

Bodie state park cleared for occupation despite link to case of ...
Bodie state park cleared for occupation despite link to case of …

McKinley County woman dies of Hantavirus
McKinley County woman dies of Hantavirus

How Nervous Should I Be About Hantavirus? – Mother Jones
How Nervous Should I Be About Hantavirus? – Mother Jones

Geographic distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases and ...
Geographic distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases and …

Hantavirus on the rise in San Diego County - The San Diego Union ...
Hantavirus on the rise in San Diego County – The San Diego Union …

Waiting to Die - Hit the Frog and Toad
Waiting to Die – Hit the Frog and Toad

Hantavirus reports from California (2 with 1 fatality), and ...
Hantavirus reports from California (2 with 1 fatality), and …

Morris: Hantavirus risks shouldn
Morris: Hantavirus risks shouldn’t be ignored – The Mercury News

Yosemite National Park Hantavirus Infection Case Count Maps ...
Yosemite National Park Hantavirus Infection Case Count Maps …

California dad demands answers after hantavirus costs State Park ...
California dad demands answers after hantavirus costs State Park …

Hantavirus in California
Hantavirus in California

Hantavirus in California
Hantavirus in California

CDC update on WEST NILE VIRUS nationally ~ FOLLOW-UP REPORT ...
CDC update on WEST NILE VIRUS nationally ~ FOLLOW-UP REPORT …

Figure - New Exposure Location for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome ...
Figure – New Exposure Location for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome …

Deer Mouse Tests Positive for Hantavirus | News | San Diego County ...
Deer Mouse Tests Positive for Hantavirus | News | San Diego County …

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

Hantavirus sampling sites in the Amargosa valley and Death Valley ...
Hantavirus sampling sites in the Amargosa valley and Death Valley …

Hantavirus infection confirmed; mice can contaminate food | Food ...
Hantavirus infection confirmed; mice can contaminate food | Food …

HEALTH: Rodents carrying potentially fatal hantavirus found in ...
HEALTH: Rodents carrying potentially fatal hantavirus found in …

Infographic: The Horrors of Hantaviris
Infographic: The Horrors of Hantaviris

How Nervous Should I Be About Hantavirus? – Mother Jones
How Nervous Should I Be About Hantavirus? – Mother Jones

Hantavirus in California
Hantavirus in California

Hantavirus
Hantavirus

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: What are the risks?: UC Davis ...
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: What are the risks?: UC Davis …

Health Officials: First Fatality From Hantavirus In California F ...
Health Officials: First Fatality From Hantavirus In California F …

Eastern Sierra Resident Dies From Hantavirus - KIBS/KBOV Radio
Eastern Sierra Resident Dies From Hantavirus – KIBS/KBOV Radio

Mono County resident dies of hantavirus
Mono County resident dies of hantavirus

Hantavirus | Mono County California
Hantavirus | Mono County California

Early Signs of Hantavirus, Treatment, Prevention, Test ...
Early Signs of Hantavirus, Treatment, Prevention, Test …

HEALTH: Rodents carrying potentially fatal hantavirus found in ...
HEALTH: Rodents carrying potentially fatal hantavirus found in …

Yosemite: Seasonal roads to open, hantavirus warnings ramped up ...
Yosemite: Seasonal roads to open, hantavirus warnings ramped up …

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Canada - Canada.ca
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Canada – Canada.ca

Hantavirus Stock Photos & Hantavirus Stock Images - Alamy
Hantavirus Stock Photos & Hantavirus Stock Images – Alamy

Hantavirus Risk Maps
Hantavirus Risk Maps

Hantavirus kills 27-year-old New Mexico mother after months in ...
Hantavirus kills 27-year-old New Mexico mother after months in …

Frequently Asked Questions - ACPHD
Frequently Asked Questions – ACPHD

The ecological dynamics of hantavirus diseases: From environmental ...
The ecological dynamics of hantavirus diseases: From environmental …

Hantavirus case reported in Northern California - Outbreak News Today
Hantavirus case reported in Northern California – Outbreak News Today

Deadly New World Hantavirus Has Arrived in the USA — Precision ...
Deadly New World Hantavirus Has Arrived in the USA — Precision …

Solved: Chapter 9, Section 1, Exercise 023 Rain And Hantav ...
Solved: Chapter 9, Section 1, Exercise 023 Rain And Hantav …

Department of Public Health - Acute Communicable Disease Control
Department of Public Health – Acute Communicable Disease Control

San Diego County: Flu outbreak in migrant shelter, mouse ...
San Diego County: Flu outbreak in migrant shelter, mouse …

Hantavirus Found In Sixth Mouse In San Diego County | KPBS
Hantavirus Found In Sixth Mouse In San Diego County | KPBS

Man contracts hantavirus after staying in cabins at California ...
Man contracts hantavirus after staying in cabins at California …

Outbreak of hantavirus infections kills three in Washington state ...
Outbreak of hantavirus infections kills three in Washington state …

Hantavirus in California
Hantavirus in California

Spring Cleaning and the Hantavirus | Fresno CA | Clovis CA
Spring Cleaning and the Hantavirus | Fresno CA | Clovis CA

Hantavirus Detections in San Diego County
Hantavirus Detections in San Diego County

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Canada - Canada.ca
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Canada – Canada.ca

New Washington Hantavirus Case Confirmed In Issaquah | Sammamish ...
New Washington Hantavirus Case Confirmed In Issaquah | Sammamish …

Hantavirus Hits California Parks Guide | RT
Hantavirus Hits California Parks Guide | RT

Tinggalkan Balasan

Alamat email Anda tidak akan dipublikasikan. Ruas yang wajib ditandai *