origin of the hantavirus

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Hantavirus was first recognized as an infectious disease in 1950s when a group of 3,000 UN troops stationed in Korea hit by a mysterious disease. Ten to fifteen percent of those infected die,
[] And although the etiologic agent was not found during the past two decades, suggesting that rats served as a major epidemiological vector. Infection is associated with fever, hypotension, renal failure, thrombocytopenia, and (DIC). The clinical syndrome known as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), dengue fever before Korea, and the virus was named after the river Hanta Hantaan of Korea. Over the ensuing years, several other etiologic agent of HFRS such as Seoul, Puumala, and Dobrava virus, found in Europe and Asia.
[,,]

Although the antigenic evidence of hantavirus remains widespread among rats throughout the United States,
[] Only a handful of cases of HFRS been identified in the United States.
[]

hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCP), however, was not recognized until May 1993, when an unusual disease struck the Navajo tribe who live on the border of New Mexico and Arizona.
[] They infected presented with fever, chills, myalgias, and cough, which often progresses to dyspnea, respiratory disorders, and cardiovascular collapse. An alarming 80% of those infected died. (See figure below.)

During the next month, a collaboration that was very effective ensued between the Department of Indian Health, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, lead not only to isolation viral success, but also for the identification of reservoirs and vectors for disease, maniculatus Peromyscus (deer) (see figure below).

serum samples from the evidence shows suffer from hantavirus infection and within 10 weeks of the original outbreak, researchers have successfully developed a diagnostic test for the virus. The new virus went through the litany of names (for example, Small Water virus, virus Four Corners, Muerto Canyon virus) before being given a somewhat tongue-in-cheek moniker of Sin Nombre virus (in Spanish, literally nameless virus). The clinical syndrome caused by the Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) or, more accurately, hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCP).
[]

About 20 viruses have been identified in the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae, but only 11 have been shown to cause disease in humans. Four belong to the “old world” and cause HFRS throughout Europe and Asia.
[] China has the highest annual incidence of HFRS with somewhere between 20,000 and 100,000 cases of HFRS symptoms are reported every year. Most cases are caused by viruses Seoul, with Hantaan virus plays a smaller role.

Five of Hantaviruses “New World” cause of HCP in North America, while others cause disease in Central America and South America. New World’s most viruses cause only HCP; However, the virus Black Creek Canal and Bayou virus from the southeastern United States, as well as viruses Andes in South America, has been linked to kidney failure and share some similarities with HFRS.

SNV is a prototypical New World hantavirus and is the cause of most cases of HCP in the United States (see figure below).

SNV and South American Andes virus causes the most severe disease, with death cases somewhere between 30 and 50%.

According to Native American legend, HCP has been in the desert southwest of North America for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. Navajo oral traditions explain the disease is now considered HCP affected healthy young members of the tribe after the winter season, and also warned of the danger traditions side by side with rodents.

serologically confirmed infection early SNV is in people who develop the HCP-like illness in July 1959; Scientists finally able to confirm the existence of the G (IgG) antibodies in the serum immunoglobulin for SNV victims in September 1994.
[]

Each hantavirus individual has its own natural host species of wild rodents as reservoir
[]; However, recent serologic testing the mice have identified some new reservoir species. In the case of SNV, the main reservoir is the deer (see figure below). Other reservoirs have recently identified include cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus) and Ceri cane rat (Zygodontomys cherriei).
[,]

Somewhere between 5% and 20% of the rodents showed evidence of antigenic Hantavirus infection with active viral shedding into the feces, urine, and saliva. infection in humans usually occurs by inhalation of aerosols of rodent waste, though sometimes the disease can be contracted through rodent bites or direct mucous membrane contact with rodent droppings. The main risk factors for hantavirus infection, therefore, prolonged exposure of mice, especially deep, poorly ventilated areas covered.
[,]

Although it is generally not transmitted from person to person, the Argentine Andes virus is a surprising exception to this rule.
[] A Chilean study found that the sexual partners of people with Andes virus-induced HCP has a 17.6% risk of developing an infection, as opposed to 1.2% among normal household contacts.
[]

Hantavirus showed the same tissue tropism in rodents and humans, but for reasons that are unclear, mice usually remain free of symptoms; consequently, they never develop immunity and become immortal viral shedders.
[,] Given that the hantavirus usually air, the first virus to infect the lung parenchyma where it is phagocytized and transported to draining lymph nodes. From here, the virus spread and mainly targets the vascular endothelial cells, especially heart, lung and lymphoid tissue, and in the case of HFRS, kidneys.

Hantaviruses have a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome, which encodes a portion of the viral glycoproteins were able to attach the beta-3 integrin cell surface molecules found on endothelial cells and platelets.
[] Despite the severity of the disease directly correlated with viral RNA load,
[] The evidence that immune mechanisms than cytopathology virus was directly responsible for a large blood vessel dysfunction and plasma leak HFRS and HCP.
[,] A 2014 study of SNV infection in rhesus macaques showed most of the release of proinflammatory cytokines that cause endothelial damage and subsequent HCP-type symptomatology, showed a significant immune role in disease progression.
[] Players involved, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), although this has not been clarified in humans.
[] Vascular endothelial growth factor has been implicated as a major player in hyperpermeability found in HFRS Hantaan virus-induced.
[]. It has been proven that the immune response precedes the development phase of cardiopulmonary disease, lending additional credibility to the hypothesis of the pathogenesis of immune-mediated.
[]

In the case of HCP, capillary leakage, very centered in the lungs causing pulmonary edema noncardiogenic fulminant. Pathological specimens show boggy, edematous lung and excessive trachea and pleural fluid.
[] Histological and immunohistochemical evidence also shows simultaneously Hantavirus-induced myocarditis, which contributes to structural changes in myocardial dysfunction.
[] Patients can develop rapidly for cardiogenic shock with the decline, increased systemic vascular resistance, and lactic acidosis.
[,] Depression Severe cardiac act synergistically with intravascular hypovolemia due to capillary leak and eventually generate steep cardiopulmonary collapse. In light of this, the initial use of vasopressors and wise administration of fluids is recommended, as well as the rapid transfer of patients to centers with artificial lung (ECMO) capabilities in terms of rescue therapy becomes necessary. The change of name of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome to hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome reflects a key contribution to morbidity made by concurrent myocardial dysfunction.

United States

In January 2017, 728 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCP) has been confirmed in 36 countries (see figure below). Thirty-six percent of all reported cases have resulted in death.

Most cases of hantavirus disease in the United States caused by the Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and has occurred west of the Mississippi River, which is in accordance with the geographical distribution of the deer mouse (see figure below).
[]

The dominance of local cases occur in rural areas. The prevalence of hantavirus infection in deer mice, vector host for Sin Nombre virus (responsible for most cases of the US), is 27.5 to 32.5%. Remnants of the largest concentrations in the Four Corners area; top 5 countries of exposure, in descending order, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, California, and Washington. The annual events nationwide in nonepidemic is approximately 20-30 cases (see figure below); only 3 cases were reported in 2018.

New York virus, Black Creek Canal virus, Seoul virus, and the virus Bayou is another rare cause of HCP have been confirmed in the eastern and southeastern United States.
[]

In general, hantavirus outbreak occurred in the spring and autumn. two US outbreaks have occurred in the last decade. HCP plague struck camping in Yosemite National Park in the summer of 2012. Ten cases were confirmed in camping sleeping in a mice-infested camp; 3 of 10 people died.
[] In January 2017, 24 patients were diagnosed with viral infections Seoul throughout 11 states; 3 people were hospitalized, and none died.
[]

International

More than 3000 cases of hantavirus disease has been reported in the American collective. Canada, especially Alberta, reported that about 10% -15% of all cases in North America annually.
[] In addition, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Guyana, and Venezuela have all reported cases of HCP.
[] At this time, at least 4 hantavirus species in South America are recognized causes of HCP. One of them, Andes virus, is unique to the transmission report person-to-person and increased mortality rate in children.
[,,,]

During the outbreak in the southwestern United States in 1993, the mortality rate is about 80%. Increased recognition of the disease and more aggressive intervention (eg, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and the beginning of mechanical ventilation) has led to a decrease in mortality, with the rate now ranging from 35% to 40%, although there is a wide range of annual variability.
[,,] Most deaths occur within 24 hours after admission.

During the initial outbreak in 1993, Native Americans are almost exclusively affected and the press called mysterious disease “Navajo flu.” As the case is installed, however, it became clear that the HCP is an equal opportunity killer. To date, 78% of patients with hantavirus infection have been white; 18%, Native American; 2%, African American; 1%, Asia; and 20%, Hispanics (ethnicity considered separate from race).
[,]

In men 63% of the total amount of HCP diagnosis. This may reflect a higher environmental exposure to deer mice.
[]

HCP has a remarkable tendency to affect relatively young, healthy adults. The average age of patients with HCP is 37 years, with a range of 6-83 years. Less than 7% of cases occur in people younger than 17 years, and the disease is very rare in those younger than 10 years. pre-adolescent children infected with SNV generally have mild disease; However, between May and November 2009, a group of five severe pediatric cases were reported, resulting in 4 intubation and 1 case of death.
[]

HCP when carrying-case mortality rate of 35% -40% among adults.
[,] Preteens seem to experience a mild form of the disease and has a mortality rate significantly lower.

Experience with HCP at the University of New Mexico Hospital have identified several factors that resulted in 100% mortality rate in some patients who did not receive ECMO.
[] These include the following:

cardiac index of less than 2.5 L / min / m2

ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or PEA

hypotension despite fluid pretty resuscitation and vasoactive pressors

Educate patients and their families about the following:

prodromal symptoms HCP

the risk of infection through contact with rodents or rodent droppings < / p>

The technique for safe area clean full

control measures Rodent (See Prevention / Prevention.)

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Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS): Background …

Orthohantaviruses belonging to three phylogroups all inhibit ...
Orthohantaviruses belonging to three phylogroups all inhibit …

Hantavirus
Hantavirus

WHO | Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome – Argentine Republic
WHO | Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome – Argentine Republic

Phylogeny and Origins of Hantaviruses Harbored by Bats ...
Phylogeny and Origins of Hantaviruses Harbored by Bats …

PDF) Hantavirus Disease Outbreak in Germany: Limitations of ...
PDF) Hantavirus Disease Outbreak in Germany: Limitations of …

Man dies of hantavirus in China — what is this virus and how it ...
Man dies of hantavirus in China — what is this virus and how it …

Early Signs of Hantavirus, Treatment, Prevention, Test ...
Early Signs of Hantavirus, Treatment, Prevention, Test …

Monica on Twitter:
Monica on Twitter: “Stop comparing #Hantavirus with #Coronavirus …

Viruses | Free Full-Text | More Novel Hantaviruses and ...
Viruses | Free Full-Text | More Novel Hantaviruses and …

CDC - Hantavirus
CDC – Hantavirus

Hantavirus outbreak: what is Hantavirus? What are the symptoms ...
Hantavirus outbreak: what is Hantavirus? What are the symptoms …

What Is Hantavirus, How Does It Spread: Why It Isn
What Is Hantavirus, How Does It Spread: Why It Isn’t As Scary As …

Phylogeny and Origins of Hantaviruses Harbored by Bats ...
Phylogeny and Origins of Hantaviruses Harbored by Bats …

Early Signs of Hantavirus, Treatment, Prevention, Test ...
Early Signs of Hantavirus, Treatment, Prevention, Test …

CDC - Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) - Hantavirus
CDC – Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) – Hantavirus

Isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent ...
Isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent …

Man dies of hantavirus in China
Man dies of hantavirus in China

Climate change and sugarcane expansion increase Hantavirus ...
Climate change and sugarcane expansion increase Hantavirus …

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