Hantaviridae is a family of viruses that group multiple, which is transmitted by infected (). In humans usually produces two types of conditions: the type of (HFRS); or (SaPHV), a very serious condition. Hantaviruses which belongs to the group C are considered risk virus # 4.
The name comes from hantavirus, a North Korean town and close to where the prototype member isolated: a. In 1930 they were reported in Europe and Asia what is considered HFRS outbreaks. But in 1978, Hantaan isolated and confirmed that several rats served as a reservoir of viruses causing HFRS. Virus, and very similar to Hantaan, distributed throughout the Eurasian region and cause HFRS.
Hantavirus oval for the ball (diameter 80-120). They are enveloped viruses in having a helical nucleocapsid.
Hantavirus Genome highly specialized, single-stranded RNA, circular negative polarity, is divided into three RNA segments of different lengths: S, M and L. Segment S (Small of the English language “small”) encodes two proteins : N protein (to the nucleocapsid protein) and NEP, nonstructural protein (non-structural proteins). Segment M (Medium “media”) encodes three proteins: G1, G2 and NEM (Non-Structural molecule “molecular nonstructural”). Segment L (Large “large”) is intended for.
Each has three nucleocapsid; each nucleocapsid is formed by one of three RNA segments (S, M or L) and protein N serological, N protein is used to detect specific virus variants.
derived envelope virus in the plasma membrane of infected cells; G1 and G2 gift prominent membrane proteins and are involved in the adhesion of the virus to target cells.
This family takes its name from the first case of banks; Hantaan virus is the virus responsible.
This is often confusion between “Hantavirus” with “Hantaan Virus”. For a mistranslation, it is to understand the “Hantavirus” as “Hanta virus,” which does not exist. What there is “Hantaan Virus” (or HTNV in), the type species hantavirus and which gives its name to the group. It is common to find these types of errors in Spanish literature, often disclosed without matching numbers, considering the “Hantavirus” as a singular noun, or the mention of “Hanta virus” when appropriate generic term “Hantavirus”. Also, respecting the rules of taxonomic nomenclature, it is true that this taxon is presented in italics (the usual).
The following is an alphabetical list of species in the family of viruses that includes Hantaviridae. Brackets comprises the usual abbreviation for the denomination virus.
gene phylogenetic analysis of rat-borne hantavirus show the existence of three major lineages. Viruses that cause HFRS lineage from the Old World, while the virus that causes SPHV share a common lineage of the New World and is a member of a subfamily of rodents (Sigmodontinae) of a family of mice.
Some of the viruses in sigmodontines is an independent species, such as genetic testing, serology, master relationship with the reservoir or three types of tests. Other viruses are being evaluated, such as the criteria for defining hantavirus spp.
In the United States have identified 13 Hantavirus spp. and these, six SPHV cause. SPHV serum antibodies of patients showed intense cross-reaction with other viruses of the New World, but the level of hantavirus antigens variable spp. Old World.
two groups of hantavirus spp
recognized. they are associated with two different clinical presentations: (. Vignoli et at) Hantavirus from the Old World and the people of the New World.
Hantavirus of the Old World are dominant in Asia (especially in China and Korea) and Europe (Germany, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Russia); They include Hantaan, Puumala, Seoul, Prospect Hill and Dobrava species. They produce images that are known as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and is responsible for 100,000 cases per year, presenTando mortality ranges between 1 and 15% (Vignoli et all.).
New World hantavirus dominate the rest of America. They were identified as manufacturers of febrile respiratory illness associated with acute failure, shock and death 60 to 80%; This is clinically known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (SPHV).
After the epidemic in the region (Four Corners, in the southwest) in 1993, was first identified hantavirus in the Americas. It was called “Sin Nombre Virus,” “Prisoners Creek” or “Muerto Canyon”, which is now known as the Four Corners (FC). Others in the new world, was identified in 1995, produces SPHV epidemic and () in 1996, provides the first evidence of epidemiology of infectious person to person, time infected with some doctors, some with a fatal outcome.
hantavirus infections result in two different clinical pictures: (HFRS); and (SPHV).
This SPHV produced by, but other viruses are also involved. Hantavirus has identified four as responsible for HFRS with renal syndrome:
spp hantavirus. important in clinical scientists research environment, it is common that this virus is a potential contaminants laboratory, samples of experimental animals (having rodent) and derivatives (cell culture, etc.).
The most effective prevention is to eliminate or minimize contact with rodents.
As the virus is transmitted by saliva, feces and bites of rodent protection in the public areas is key to the prevention of disease.
A general deterrence is achieved by avoiding the places where they can live and breed rodents. Therefore it is important to dispose nest, seals holes, setting traps or rodenticide, clean and disinfect frequently, avoid leaving food easily accessible to rodents (crumbs, food on the floor, etc.) and natural predators such as cats.
It is important for certain considerations in industry or households in rural areas and those who are at risk as minors or adults older (gardens, schools, nursing homes, etc.). If the screen rats should be communicated to government agencies as an area of control, it is common that the state has a certain area. In turn there are different guidelines for different sectors makes it possible to take measures to reduce the risk citizenship, as well as from the Manual for Integral Rodent Control (Colombia) and Manual for field rodent control at home (INTA).
Since the limited treatment options, the best protection is to avoid rodents and their habitats.
Scientists at the University of Concepción Chile, led by first finding a specific treatment based. The process begins by detecting viral why some patients survived and found they had a lot of antibodies.
In countries such as Chile, according to the protocol thereof, are exposed to hantavirus patient must be intubated, under mechanical ventilation and, if they start deteriorating vital signs they must be done in: the treatment of blood oxygenation, which is involves draining the blood and then insert, using a cannula and centrifugal pumps.
The screen is also endorsed by since 2016, which is immune to inject plasma of the survivors of Hantavirus and should contain thousands of antibodies.
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