Hantavirus is an acute viral disease caused by the Hanta virus. Mice (especially colilargos) sent to people by eliminating the virus in their saliva, feces and urine.
This is a genre that brings together several RNA virus, which is transmitted by infected rodents (zoonosis).
Humans generally produce two types of conditions: fever, dengue virus type, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS); or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (SPHV), a lung disease that is very serious.
Hantavirus is Bunyaviridae family-owned group, group C. It is considered a biosecurity risk virus n ° 4.
Hantan Hantavirus genus name comes from the river, the northern cities of Paju Dongducheon and close members of prototypes previously isolated: Hantaan virus. Already in 1930 they were reported in Europe and Asia outbreak at the time was considered HFRS. But it was in 1978 when Hantaan virus was isolated and confirmed that several rats served as a reservoir of viruses causing HFRS. Seoul, Dobrava and Puumala virus were very similar to Hantaan, and is widely distributed throughout the Eurasian region and also cause HFRS.
How is it spread?
Inhalation: This is the most common cause. This happens when we breathe in open places or closed (warehouses, orchards, pastures) where feces or urine of infected rats coming from the virus into the environment.
Direct contact: In the play alive or dead infected mice, or feces or urine of these rodents
By the bite: A bitten by an infected rodent.
The symptoms are similar to flu-like fever, muscle pain, chills, headache (headache) nausea, vomiting, and sometimes abdominal pain and diarrhea. After a few days there may be respiratory problems may worsen to produce what is known as a “hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome”, that although very rarely it can cause death if not treated in time.
hantavirus infections result in two different clinical pictures: Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS); and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (SPHV).
Chest X-ray (interstitial infiltrates bilaterally symmetrical)
Analytical (leukocytosis with a left shift, neutrophilia -metamielocitos- circulating adult form, peroférica atypical lymphocytes in the blood, increased hematocrit and thrombocytopenia. Increased LDH, transaminases and hypoproteinemia. Hemoconcentration occur due to loss of interstitial fluid extracellular space, fundamental lung, the primary measure to increase this to replace the fluid, which in this increase if the interstitial and alveolar edema HFRS SPH or retroperitoneal space, exacerbating the patient’s condition.
serology, virus culture and PCR.
support (Ribavirin under investigation). In children as in adults.
Prevention and Control:
An outbreak associated with seasonal changes in climate, changes in the dynamics of the rodent population. human intervention such as changing the ecosystem by improving contacts between mice and men.
This virus is susceptible to most disinfectants and household detergents. Labile have UV radiation causes rapid inactivation in ventilated with exposure to sunlight. the virus is inactive at temperatures above 37 ° C, while stable to 4 ° C for 12 hours. Also inactive at extreme pH conditions and high salt concentrations.
control the population of rodents: Prevent access housing mice (Sealing cracks and holes, eliminating access to food, trapping). Bothered to clean the room with evidence of mice, increased to avoid dust. Ventilation enclosed space, and the affected area should be sprayed with disinfectants commonly used for home or only with sodium hypochlorite, avoid aerosolization of particles and dust from the ground and atmosphere.
Special attention should be taken in Sunsetsta up of air conditioning ducts or filters that may have contact with contaminated dust, rodents or droppings from her and fans.
Handwashing, masks, disinfecting fomites, instrumental, etc.
Precautions to prevent transmission between people.
Mandatory reporting in some endemic countries, 3.
Puumala virus (Northern Europe and Russia)
Puumala besides being a municipality of Finland is the type of hantavirus that reservoirs are rodents. For example, banks rats act as a reservoir for the virus, whose density increases cyclically when the weather conditions and
favorable environment, such as more intense flowering occurs on the beech.
Transmission is by inhalation rodent droppings. Transmission of people are very rare.
In humans cause hemorrhage fever sometimes leading to kidney disorders, with
related mortality of 1%. Faced with increasing cases in Europe, imported cases can be detected on tourists. The virus was discovered and named in 1980 by two Finnish researchers:
Markus Brummer-Korvenkontio and Antti Vaheri.
Viajarseguro.org. Copyright © November 2018